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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. leug-   'to bend'

Semantic Field: to Bend


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: belūcan, belēac, belucon, belocen vb.str.II to lock, shut, close LRC
  lé(a)c/lǣc n.neut leek, garden herb KEW/ASD
  loc n.neut lock: fastening W7/ASD
  locc n.masc lock: hair W7/ASD
  lūcan, lēac, lucon, locen vb.str.II to lock LRC
Middle English: leek n leek W7
  lok n lock: hair/fastening W7
English: Leaflock prop.n Ent a.k.a. Finglas in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  leek n biennial garden herb in lily family W7
  lock n bolt, bar, fastening (operated e.g. by key) W7
  lock n tuft/tress/ringlet of hair W7
  lock vb to close/fasten/secure with lock W7
  lockhole n hobbit lock-up in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old Frisian: lūka vb to lock, close ASD
Old Saxon: ant-lūkan vb to lock, close ASD
  bi-lūkan vb to lock, close ASD
  lôk n leek KSW
Old High German: loc(c) n lock: hair W7/ASD
  loh n.neut lock: fastening W7/ASD
  louh n leek KDW
  lūhhan vb to lock, close ASD
German: Lauch n leek LRC
  Locke n lock: hair ASD
Old Norse: laukr n.masc leek; plant LRC
  lúka vb to end, finish, use up LRC
Old Icelandic: lok n.neut lock: fastening IEW
Icelandic: lok n conclusion ASD
  loka n lock, latch ASD
  lokkr n lock: hair ASD
  lúka vb to lock, close ASD
Danish: løg n onion TLL
Swedish: lock n lid, cover LRC
  lök n onion TLL
Gothic: galūkan vb.str.II to lock LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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