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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: lī̆-no-   'flax, linen'

Semantic Field: Flax, Linen

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: līn n.neut flax, linen W7
  līne n.fem line W7
  līnen adj linen W7
  līnsǣd n.neut linseed W7/ASD
Middle English: line n line W7
  linen adj linen W7
  linen vb to line W7
  linseed n linseed W7
English: align vb to bring into line/alignment AHD/W7
  crinoline n open-weave fabric of cotton/horsehair AHD/W7
  line n rope, cord, string, thread AHD/W7
  line vb.trans to cover inner surface AHD/W7
  linen adj/n (cloth) made of flax AHD/W7
  lingerie n linen articles/(under)garments AHD/W7
  linnet n small Old World finch AHD/W7
  linseed n flaxseed AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Saxon: līn n flax, linen ASD
Old High German: līn n flax, linen W7
  līnin adj linen ASD
  linna n line ASD
German: Lein n flax, linen ASD
  leinen adj linen ASD
N-Germanic  
Icelandic: lín n flax, linen ASD
  lína n line ASD
E-Germanic  
Gothic: lein n linen ASD
Italic  
Latin: linea n.fem line W7
  lineus adj linen W7
  linum n.neut flax, linen W7
Old French: aligner vb to align W7
  ligne n.fem line W7
Middle French: lin n.masc flax, linen W7
  linette n.fem linnet W7
  linge n.masc linen W7
  lingerie n.fem lingerie W7
French: aligner vb to align W7
  crinoline n.fem crinoline W7
  ligne n.fem line W7
  lingerie n.fem lingerie W7
Italian: crinolina n.fem crinoline W7
Hellenic  
Greek: λίνεος adj linen LRC
  λίνον n.neut flax, linen LRC

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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