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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 5. mē-, mō-, mə-   'to be intent; of strong will'

Semantic Fields: Purpose, Intention; to Will, Wish


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gāl-mōd adj wanton, licentious, light-minded ASD
  mōd n.neut mood: mind, soul, spirit LRC
  mōd-cearig adj anxious, sorrowful, lit. mood-caring LRC
  mōd-wlonc adj haughty, lit. mood-proud LRC
Middle English: mood n mood: mind, soul, spirit W7
  moral adj moral W7
English: Gálmód prop.n Grima's father in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  gemutlich adj warm, amiable, congenial, comfortable AHD
  gemutlichkeit n warmth, comfort, congeniality AHD
  mood n feeling, emotion, state of mind AHD/W7
  moral adj ethical, re: principles of right/wrong AHD/W7
  morale n moral conduct/teachings/principles AHD/W7
  mores fixed morally binding group customs AHD/W7
  morose adj having gloomy/sullen disposition AHD/W7
Old Frisian: mōd n mood: mind, soul, spirit ASD
Old Saxon: gēl-mōd adj gole, light-minded ASD
  mōd n mood: mind, soul, spirit ASD
  mōd-karag adj anxious, sorrowful, lit. mood-caring ASD
Old High German: muot n mood: mind, soul, spirit W7
German: Gemüt n.neut mind, nature; feeling, disposition LRC
  gemütlich adj gemutlich AHD
  Gemütlichkeit n.fem gemutlichkeit AHD
  Mut n.masc bravery, audacity LRC
  Muth n mood: mind, soul, spirit ASD
Icelandic: möðr n wrath, grief ASD
Gothic: mōds n anger ASD
Latin: moralis adj re: mores/custom W7
  morosus adj capricious W7
  mōs, mōris n.masc mores, custom LRC
Middle French: moral adj according to custom W7
French: moral adj moral W7
  morale n.fem moral lesson of story W7
Greek: Μοῦσα n.fem Muse LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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