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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: médhu   'mead, honey'

Semantic Fields: Mead; Honey


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: mid n mead LRC
Welsh: meddyglyn n drink of mead W7/WE
Old English: medo/medu/meodn n.masc mead W7/ASD
Middle English: amatiste n amethyst W7
  mede n mead W7
English: amethyst n crystallized quartz in clear blue/violet/purple color AHD/W7
  mead n drink made from fermented honey AHD/W7
  Meduseld prop.n Mark palace in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  methylene n bivalent hydrocarbon radical AHD
Old High German: metu/meto/mito n.masc mead W7/ASD
German: Meth n mead ASD
Old Norse: mjǫðr n.masc mead LRC
Icelandic: mjödr n.masc mead ASD
Latin: amethystus n.fem amethyst W7
Old French: amatiste n.fem amethyst W7
Lithuanian: medùs n honey LRC
Russian: med n honey LRC
  medved n bear, lit. honey-eater LRC
Homeric Greek: μέθῠ n.neut mead, wine LRC
Greek: amethystos n.fem remedy for drunkenness W7
  methuskein vb to intoxicate AHD
  methyw vb to be drunk W7
Luwian: maddu- n mead LRC
Avestan: madu- n mead, wine LRC
Sanskrit: mádhu n honey LRC
Tocharian B: mit n honey LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
WE=H. Meurig Evans and W.O. Thomas: Welsh-English, English-Welsh Dictionary (1969)

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