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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: meg̑(h)- : meg̑(h)-   'big, much, great, major, mega-'

Semantic Field: Big, Large, Great


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: magister/mægister n.masc master, leader W7/ASD
  micel/mycel adj/adv mickle LRC
Middle English: amaistrien vb to master MEV
  magistrat n magistrate W7
  magnate n magnate W7
  magnifien vb to magnify W7
  magnitude n magnitude W7
  maieste n majesty W7
  maiour adj major W7
  maire n mayor W7
  maistresse n mistress W7
  master n master W7
  maxime n maxim W7
  May prop.n May W7
  mikel/michel adj mickle W7
  muchel/muche adj much, large W7
English: acromegaly n chronic hyperpituitarism (enlargement of feet/hands) AHD/W7
  cardiomegaly n abnormal heart enlargement AHD
  maestoso adj stately, majestic AHD/W7
  maestro n master (in art/music) AHD/W7
  magisterial adj authoritative, re: characteristics of master/teacher AHD/W7
  magistral adj magisterial, re: master AHD/W7
  magistrate n official charged with administration of laws AHD/W7
  magnate n person of rank/power/influence/distinction AHD/W7
  magnific adj magnificent AHD/W7
  magnificent adj great in deed/place AHD/W7
  magnifico n nobleman of Venice AHD/W7
  magnify vb to laud, extol AHD/W7
  magniloquent adj grandiloquent, lofty/extravagant in speech AHD
  magnitude n greatness of character/position AHD/W7
  magnum n large wine bottle (ca. 2/5 gallon) AHD/W7
  maharaja(h) n king/prince in India AHD
  maharani/maharanee n maharajah's wife AHD
  maharishi n teacher of mysticism/spiritual knowledge (Hinduism) AHD
  mahatma n person revered for wisdom/selflessness/high-mindedness AHD/W7
  majesty n sovereign power/dignity/authority AHD/W7
  major adj greater in rank/dignity, interest/importance AHD/W7
  major-domo n head butler/steward in noble's household AHD
  majority n more than half, greater part/number AHD
  majuscule n large (e.g. capital) letter AHD/W7
  master n male leader/teacher AHD/W7
  master vb to control, overcome, become master W7
  maxim n general truth, rule of conduct, fundamental principle AHD/W7
  maximum n greatest value/quantity attained/attainable AHD/W7
  May prop.n 5th month (in Gregorian calendar) AHD/W7
  mayor n nominal head/chief executive of city/borough AHD/W7
  mega- pfx great, large AHD/W7
  megal(o)- pfx great, exaggerated in size/greatness AHD
  megalocardia n cardiomegaly AHD
  megalopolis n region of large adjacent cities AHD
  Meistersinger prop.n master of 14th-16th century German guild cultivating traditions of medieval Minnesingers W7
  mickle adj/adv much, great; very AHD/W7
  mister n sir, master, man without title AHD/W7
  mistral n strong cold dry north(west) wind AHD/W7
  mistress n woman with power/ownership/authority AHD/W7
  much adj great in amount/degree/extent/quantity AHD/W7
  omega n last letter in Greek alphabet AHD
Old Saxon: mikil adj mickle ASD
Old High German: mihhil/michil adj mickle W7/ASD
Middle High German: meistersinger n.masc Meistersinger, lit. master-singer W7
German: Meistersinger n.masc Meistersinger W7
Old Norse: mjǫk adj/adv much; very LRC
Icelandic: mikill adj mickle ASD
Danish: megen adj mickle TLL
Swedish: mycken adj mickle TLL
Gothic: mikilei n.wk.fem greatness LRC
  mikils adj mickle LRC
Latin: magis adv more LRC
  magister, magistri n.masc master, professor W7
  magistralis adj of a master/professor W7
  magistratus n.masc magistracy, magistrate W7
  magnifico, magnificare vb to magnify W7
  magnificus adj magnificent, noble in character W7
  magnitudo, magnitudinis n.fem size, greatness LRC
  magnus, magna, magnum adj large, great LRC
  Maia prop.n.fem Roman goddess W7
  Maius prop.n.masc May LRC
  majestas, majestatis n.fem majesty W7
  major/maior adj.comp major, larger W7
  majusculus adj rather large (diminutive) W7
  maximus, maxima, maximum adj.sup/n greatest; greatest/highest thing W7
Late Latin: magister n.masc master, professor W7
  magisterialis adj re: authority W7
  magisterium n.neut office of a master W7
  magistralis adj of the master/professor W7
  magnates n.masc magnate W7
Portuguese: mas conj but TLL
Spanish: mas conj but TLL
Old French: amaistrier vb to master MEV
  mai n.masc May W7
  maire n.masc mayor, headmaster W7
  maistre n.masc master W7
  maistresse n.fem mistress W7
  majesté n.fem majesty W7
Middle French: magnifier vb to magnify, make larger W7
  magnifique adj magnificent W7
  maistresse n.fem mistress W7
  maxime n.fem maxim, saying W7
French: acromégalie n.fem acromegaly W7
  mais conj but TLL
  majuscule adj capital W7
  mistral n.masc mistral W7/R1
Provençal: mistral adj masterful W7
Italian: ma conj but TLL
  maestà n.fem majesty W7
  maestoso adj majestic, stately W7/CID
  maèstro n.masc master, teacher W7
  magnifico adj magnificent W7
Greek: μεγάθης n.fem height LRC
  μεγᾰλεῖος adj mighty, splendid, magnificent LRC
  μεγάλος adj great LRC
  μεγάλως adv greatly LRC
  μέγᾰς adj big, tall, great LRC
  μέγεθος n.neut size LRC
Sanskrit: mahant adj great W7
  mahātman adj great-souled W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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