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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. mei-   'to change, mutate, exchange'

Semantic Fields: to Change; to Trade


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: bimūtian vb to exchange for W7
  gemǣne adj mean, common, general, universal W7
Middle English: azimut n azimuth AHD
  commun adj common W7
  communen vb to commune, administer Communion W7
  excommunicaten vb to excommunicate W7
  (i)mene adj mean, common, general, universal W7
  mewe n mew W7
  mouten vb to molt W7
  mutual adj mutual W7
  permuten vb to permute W7
  senith n zenith AHD
English: azimuth n horizontal angle between object and reference point AHD
  common adj public, re: community at large AHD/W7
  commune n smallest administrative unit of country (esp. in Europe) AHD/W7
  commune vb.intrans to converse; receive Communion AHD/W7
  communicate vb to share AHD/W7
  communion n act/instance of sharing W7
  communism n political theory advocating private property elimination AHD/W7
  emigrate vb.intrans to leave abode/country for life/residence elsewhere AHD/W7
  excommunicate vb.trans to deprive of communication AHD/W7
  immune adj free, exempt AHD/W7
  incommunicado adv without means of communication AHD/W7
  mean adj humble, lacking eminence/distinction AHD/W7
  mew n coop, cage for hawks (esp. when molting) AHD/W7
  mew vb to molt, cast feathers ODE
  mews stables built around open court ODE
  mo(u)lt vb to shed outer layer periodically AHD/W7
  munificent adj generous, liberal in giving AHD
  mutate vb to undergo change AHD/W7
  mutual adj given/received in equal amounts AHD/W7
  permute vb.trans to change order/arrangement of AHD/W7
  remuda n herd of horses available for day AHD/W7
  remunerate vb.trans to pay equivalent for AHD/W7
  transmute vb to convert, change/alter in form/nature/appearance AHD/W7
  zenith n point in sky directly above observer AHD
Old Frisian: ge-mēne adj mean, common, mutual, general ASD
Old Saxon: gi-mēni adj mean, common, mutual, general ASD
Old High German: gi-meini/ga-meini adj mean, common, mutual, general W7/ASD
German: gemein adj mean, cruel, common LRC
  mutieren vb to mutate LRC
Old Norse: mein n.neut harm, hurt, pain, injury; plague, disease LRC
Gothic: ga-mains adj mean, common, mutual, general ASD
Latin: commūnia common things W7
  commūnicō, commūnicāre, commūnicāvī, commūnicātus vb to impart, participate W7
  commūnis adj common W7
  ēmīgrō, ēmīgrāre, ēmīgrāvī, ēmīgrātus vb to emigrate W7
  immūnis adj free of obligations W7
  mīgro, mīgrāre vb to migrate W7
  mūnerō, mūnerāre vb to give W7
  mūnus, mūneris n.neut official charge, service, obligation W7
  mūto, mūtāre, mūtāvī, mūtātus vb to change W7
  mūtuus adj lent, borrowed, mutual W7
  permūto, permūtāre vb to exchange, interchange W7
  remūnerō, remūnerāre, remūnerāvī, remūnerātus vb to recompense W7
  sēmita n.fem footpath, narrow way CLD
Late Latin: commūnicō, communicāre vb to commune, communicate W7
  excommūnico, excommūnicāre, excommūnicāvī, excommūnicātus vb to excommunicate W7
Medieval Latin: cenith n zenith AHD
  commūnia things owned in common W7
Old Spanish: zenit n zenith, way (of the head) W7
Spanish: comunicar vb to communicate W7
  incomunicado adj without means of communication W7
  incomunicar vb to deprive of communication W7
  muda n mew ODE
  remuda n.fem exchange W7
Old French: azimut n azimuth AHD
  cenith n zenith AHD
  commun adj common W7
  mue n mew ODE
  muer vb to molt, change W7
Middle French: cenith n zenith W7
  comugne n.fem commune, community W7
  comunier vb to converse, administer/receive Communion W7
  mue n.fem molting W7
  muer vb to molt, shed horns W7
  mutuel adj mutual W7
  permuter vb to permute W7
French: commun adj common W7
  commune n.fem commune W7
  communisme n.masc communism W7
Italian: muda n mew ODE
Albanian: komunë n.fem commune, province LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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