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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. mei-t(h)-   'to commute, (ex)change'

Semantic Fields: to Change; to Trade


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gemād adj mad, silly W7
  gemǣdan vb.wk to madden W7/ASD
  māðm/mādm/māð(ð)um n.masc gift, jewel, treasure ASD
  māðum-hūs n.neut treasury, lit. treasure-house ASD
  mis(s)-/misse-/mist- pfx mis- W7/ASD
  missan vb to miss W7
Middle English: amis/amys adv amiss AHD/MEV
  madd/medd adj mad W7
  mis-/mes- pfx mis- W7
  missen vb to miss W7
  mistaken vb to mistake W7
English: amiss adj/adv wrong(ly), improper(ly); astray W7
  commute vb to exchange, give in exchange AHD/W7
  mad adj insane, mentally disordered AHD/W7
  madden vb to make/drive mad LRC
  mathom n hobbit gift in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Mathom-house prop.n weapon museum in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  mis- pfx bad, wrong; badly, wrongly AHD/W7
  mishap n.arch misfortune, bad luck AHD/W7
  miss vb to fail to reach/touch/contact AHD/W7
  mistake, mistook, mistaken vb.str to choose wrongly AHD/W7
Old Frisian: mis- pfx mis- ASD
  missa vb to miss, be without ASD
Old Saxon: mēðmōs gifts, precious things ASD
  mis- pfx mis- ASD
Old High German: gimeit adj mad, crazy, foolish W7
  missa-/missi- pfx mis- ASD
  missan vb to miss W7
Middle High German: misse- pfx mis- ASD
German: mis(s)- pfx mis- ASD
  missen vb to miss LRC
Old Norse: mis- pfx mis- W7
  missa, missat vb to miss, lose, be without LRC
  mistaka vb to mistake W7
Icelandic: meiðmar gifts ASD
  mis- pfx mis- ASD
  missa vb to miss, lack, lose ASD
Danish: mis- pfx mis- ASD
Swedish: mis- pfx mis- ASD
Gothic: inmáidjan vb.wk.I to transfigure LRC
  maiþm n gift, jewel, treasure LRC
  missō adv reciprocally, one then another, one to another LRC
Latin: commūto, commūtāre vb to commute W7
  mūto, mūtāre vb to change W7
Old French: mis-/mes- pfx not, mis- W7
Middle French: mes- pfx not, mis- W7
Sanskrit: methati vb to hurt W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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