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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: mē̆lg̑-, or meləg̑-?   'to milk, pluck, wipe off'

Semantic Field: to Milk


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bō-milge n cow's milk GED
  mlicht n milk GED
  mligim vb to milk GED
Middle Irish: blicht n milk LRC
  bligim vb to milk LRC
Welsh: blith n milk LRC
Old English: me(o)lcan vb.str to milk W7/GED
  meol(u)c n.fem milk W7/ASD
  milc/mioluc n.fem milk GED
  -milce sfx milch W7
  þri-milce n.masc May, lit. three-milkings (month) ASD
Middle English: milche adj milch W7
  milk n milk W7
English: emulsion n liquid dispersed in immiscible liquid AHD/W7
  milch adj milk-giving AHD/W7
  milchig adj from milk/dairy products AHD
  milk n fluid secreted by mammary gland of female mammal AHD/W7
  milk vb to draw/yield milk from breast/udder W7
  Thrimidge/Thrimi(l)ch prop.n Shire calendar's May in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old Frisian: melka vb.str to milk GED
  melok n.fem milk GED
Old Saxon: miluk n.fem milk GED
Old High German: melchan vb.str to milk GED
  miluh n.str.fem milk GED
Middle High German: milkh n milk AHD
German: melken vb to milk LRC
  Milch n.fem milk LRC
Yiddish: milkh n milk AHD
  milkhik adj milchig AHD
Old Icelandic: mjaltir whey GED
  mjaltr adj milch LRC
  mjǫlk n.fem milk GED
  molka vb.wk to milk GED
Icelandic: mjólkr n milk ASD
Gothic: *miluks n.fem milk GED
Latin: ēmulgeō, ēmulgēre, ēmūlsī, ēmūlsus vb to milk out W7
  melca n.fem milk GED
  mulgeo, mulgēre vb to milk W7
New Latin: emulsio n.fem a milking out W7
Lithuanian: mal̃kas n gulp GED
  mélžti vb to milk GED
  mìlžti vb to milk LRC
Old Polish: młost n milk can GED
Polish: mleko n milk GED
Serbo-Croatian: mlâz n jet of milk LRC
Old Church Slavonic: *melko n milk GED
  mlĕsti vb to milk GED
Russian: moloko n milk GED
  molost n milk-time GED
Albanian: mjel vb to milk GED
Homeric Greek: ἀμέλγω vb to milk LRC
Greek: ἀμέλγω vb to draw, pull GED
  μέλκα n herbed/spiced sour milk GED
Sanskrit: māršṭi vb to wipe, rub off LRC
Tokharian: malk- vb to milk GED
Tocharian B: malkwer n milk GED
Tocharian A: malke n milk GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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