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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: mendh-   'to direct attention to; vivacious'

Semantic Field: to Show

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Middle English: monstre n monster W7
  mustren vb to show, muster W7
English: chrestomathy n passages selected to aid language learning AHD/W7
  demonstrate vb to show clearly AHD/W7
  mathematical adj re: mathematics (science of numbers) AHD/W7
  mathematics n science of numbers AHD/W7
  monster n prodigy AHD/W7
  muster vb to enlist AHD/W7
  polymath n someone with encyclopedic learning AHD/W7
E-Germanic  
Gothic: mundon vb.wk to observe, pay attention to W7/GED
Italic  
Latin: dēmonstrō, dēmonstrāre, dēmonstrāvī, dēmonstrātus vb to show, point at W7
  mathematicus adj mathematical W7
  monstro, monstrāre vb to show W7
  monstrum n.neut monster, evil omen W7
New Latin: chrestomathia n.fem learning W7
Old French: monstrer vb to show W7
Middle French: monstre n.masc monster W7
Hellenic  
Greek: μάθημα, μάθηματος n.neut lesson; science, knowledge, mathematics LS
  μᾰθημᾰτικος adj mathematical; disposed to learn LS
  μᾰθητής n.masc pupil, student, disciple LS
  μανθάνω vb to learn, know, understand LS
  polymathēs adj very learned W7
  chrēstomatheia n.fem learning W7
Indic  
Sanskrit: medhā n intelligence W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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