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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: mə-r, genitive mə-n-és, mn̥tós   'hand'

Semantic Field: Hand


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: muntar n family LRC
Old English: mund n.fem hand; shelter, protection LRC
  mund-beorh n.masc sheltering-hill ASD
  mundian vb.wk to guard, protect ASD
Middle English: comanden vb to command W7
  commenden vb to commend W7
  countermaunden vb to countermand W7
  demaunden vb to demand W7
  manere n manner W7
  manicle n manacle W7
  manuel adj manual W7
  manumitten vb to manumit W7
  recommenden vb to praise W7
  remaunden vb to remand W7
English: amanuensis n secretary, one employed to copy manuscript/write from dictation AHD/W7
  command n act of commanding, unit commanded W7
  command vb to order, direct authoritatively AHD/W7
  commando n military unit/command; raiding expedition AHD/W7
  commend vb to entrust for care/preservation AHD/W7
  countermand vb.trans to revoke (earlier command) by contrary order AHD/W7
  demand n (act of) demanding, asking with authority W7
  demand vb to ask (for), claim as due AHD/W7
  emancipate vb.trans to release from one's care/responsibility granting legal rights AHD/W7
  Éomund prop.n chief marshal in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  manacle n handcuff, shackle for hand/wrist AHD/W7
  manage n action/paces of trained riding horse AHD/W7
  manage vb to control, handle AHD/W7
  mandamus n writ issued by superior court commanding performance of specified official act/duty AHD/W7
  mandate n authoritative command AHD/W7
  manege n school for training horses/teaching horsemanship AHD/W7
  manicotti n pasta tubes stuffed with meat/cheese AHD
  manicure n manicurist AHD/W7
  manicurist n one who treats hands/nails W7
  maniple n long narrow band worn over left arm by ministers at mass AHD/W7
  manipulation n treating/operating by hand AHD/W7
  manner n sort, kind AHD/W7
  manque adj short of/frustrated in fulfillment of talents/aspirations AHD/W7
  manual adj re: hands AHD/W7
  manubrium n anatomical part/process shaped like handle AHD/W7
  manumit vb.trans to release from slavery AHD/W7
  manus n distal segment of vertebrate forelimb including carpus and hand/forefoot AHD/W7
  manuscript adj/n (re:) handwritten document AHD/W7
  Mundberg/Mundburg prop.n a.k.a. Minas Tirith in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  quadrumanous adj four-handed, having four feet with with opposable first digits AHD/CDC
  recommend vb.trans to present as worth trial/acceptance AHD/W7
  remand vb.trans to order back AHD/W7
Old Frisian: mund n guardian(ship) ASD
Dutch: commando n command AHD/W7
Afrikaans: kommando n commando AHD/W7
Old Saxon: mund n hand ASD
  mundōn vb to guard, protect ASD
Old High German: mund n hand, protection LRC
  muntōn vb to guard, protect, defend ASD
Old Norse: mund n hand LRC
  mundr n bride-price LRC
Icelandic: mund n.fem hand ASD
Latin: amanuensis n.masc slave with secretarial duties W7
  commendō, commendāre vb to commend, commit to one's charge W7
  emancipo, emancipare, emancipavi, emancipatus vb to abandon property of, release from paternal authority W7
  manceps, mancipis n.masc purchaser W7
  mancipo, mancipāre vb to transfer ownership of W7
  mandatum n.neut mission, charge W7
  mando, mandāre, mandāvī, mandātum vb to commit, entrust, command LRC
  manicae, manicarum n.fem long sleeves LRC
  manicula n.fem little hand, plough handle W7
  manipulus n.masc handful W7
  manualis adj of the hand W7
  manuarius adj of the hand W7
  manubrium n.neut handle W7
  manumitto, manumittere vb to free a slave W7
  manus, manūs n.fem hand LRC
Vulgar Latin: commando, commandare vb to command W7
  manuaria adj.fem of the hand W7
Late Latin: remando, remandāre vb to send back word W7
Medieval Latin: demandō, demandāre vb to ask via messenger W7
  manipulus n.masc handful W7
  recommendo, recommendare vb to recommend W7
New Latin: manubrium n.neut anatomical part/process shaped like handle W7
  manus n.masc distal segment of vertebrate forelimb W7
Portuguese: mandarim n.masc public official in Chinese Empire W7
Spanish: comandar vb to command AHD/W7
  comando n command AHD/W7
  mandarin n.masc mandarin (small orange) W7
  mandarina n.fem fruit of mandarin tree W7
Old French: comander vb to command W7
  maniere n.fem manner, way of acting W7
Middle French: contremander vb to countermand W7
  demander vb to demand W7
  mandat n.masc mission W7
  mander vb to command W7
  manicle n.fem manacle W7
  manuel n handbook W7
  manumitter vb to free a slave W7
  remander vb to send back word W7
French: commander vb to command AHD/W7
  mandarine n.fem mandarin (small orange) W7
  manège n.masc manege, roller-coaster W7
  manipulation n.fem manipulation W7
  manipule n.masc Roman army standard, fabric band worn by priest W7/R1
  manque n.masc lack, need of W7
  manquer vb to lack W7
Italian: maneggiare vb to manage W7
  maneggio n.masc training/management of horse W7
  mano n.fem hand, skill, ability W7
Albanian: marr vb to take, receive IEW
Gheg: mârr vb to take, receive LRC
Greek: μάρη n.fem hand LRC
Hittite: maniyahh- n to allot, apportion, administer LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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