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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. meug-, meuk-   'to slip, slide; meek'

Semantic Field: to Slip, Slide


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sméag adj smart, shrewd, cunning, sagacious IEW
  smēa(ga)n vb.str to seek, ponder, examine, investigate IEW/ASD
  sméagol adj thin, narrow; slim, slender IEW
  smoc(c) n.masc smock W7
  smūgan vb.str to sneak, creep, crawl; slip, slide IEW/ASD
  smygel(s) n.masc burrow, place to creep into ASD
Middle English: macche n match W7
  meek adj meek W7
  moiste adj moist W7
  mowlde n mold W7
  muscilage n mucilage W7
  smok n smock W7
English: emunctory n organ for carrying off body wastes AHD/W7
  match n wick/cord chemically prepared for burning AHD/W7
  meek adj mild, enduring injury with patience/without resentment AHD/W7
  moist adj damp, slightly/moderately wet AHD/W7
  moisture n wetness TLL
  mold n superficial growth on damp/decaying organic matter AHD/W7
  mucilage n gelatinous substance (from seaweed) similar to plant gums AHD/W7
  mucus n viscid slippery secretion from mucous membranes AHD/W7
  mug n drizzle AHD/W7
  muggy adj warm, damp, and close AHD/W7
  musty adj stale/moldy in taste/odor AHD
  saccharomyces n single-celled sugar-fermenting yeast AHD
  schmuck n oaf, stupid/clumsy person AHD
  Smaug prop.n worm/dragon in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
  Sméagol prop.n a.k.a. Gollum in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  smial n hobbit-hole in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  smock n woman's undergarment AHD/W7
  smug adj spruce, trim/smart in dress AHD/W7
  smuggle vb to import/export secretly (without paying duties) AHD/W7
  streptomyces soil actinomycetes AHD/W7
Dutch: smokkelen vb to smuggle W7
Middle Low German: smuck adj supple, pliant W7
  smucken vb to dress W7
Low German: smuck adj neat, smug W7
  smuggeln vb to smuggle W7
Old High German: smocco n adornment W7
Middle High German: smiegen vb to creep, crawl ASD
Old Norse: mjūkr adj gentle W7
  myki n dung W7
  *smaug adj smart, shrewd, cunning, sagacious LRC
  smjúga vb to pierce, creep through/under ICE
Icelandic: smjúga, smaug vb to pierce, creep through/under ICE
  smogall/smugall adj penetrating ASD
  smuga n.fem hole, narrow cleft to creep through ASD
Latin: emungo, emungere, emunxī, emunctus vb to clean the nose W7
  mucidus adj slimy W7
  mucus n.masc mucus W7
Vulgar Latin: muscidus adj moist W7
Late Latin: mucilago n.fem mucus; musty juice W7
New Latin: emunctorium n.neut handkerchief W7
  streptomyces genus of soil actinomycetes W7
Middle French: meiche n.fem match, cord to fire firearms W7
  moiste adj moist, wet W7
Latvian: izmaukt, izmaucu, izmaucu vb to be carved from, hollowed out LRC
Greek: mykēs n.masc a fungus W7
  myxa n.fem mucus W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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