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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: mori, mōri   'mere, sea'

Semantic Field: Sea


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mere/mære n.masc mere ASD
  mere-hūs n.neut lit. sea-house LRC
  mere-men(n)/mere-men(n)en n.fem siren ASD
  mere-næddra n.masc lamprey, lit. sea-adder ASD
  mere-swīn n.neut dolphin, porpoise, lit. sea-pig ASD
  mere-wērig adj weary of seafaring, lit. sea-weary ASD
  mere-wīf n.neut water-witch, woman living in lake ASD
  mer(i)sc n.masc marsh W7
Middle English: cormeraunt n cormorant W7
  marine adj marine W7
  mere n mere W7
  mersh n marsh W7
English: beche-de-mer n trepang, lit. sea grub AHD/W7
  cormorant n dark-colored web-footed seabird AHD/W7
  maar n circular flat-bottomed volcanic crater AHD
  mare n extensive dark area on surface of moon/Mars AHD/W7
  mariculture n cultivation of marine organisms AHD
  marinara n tomato sauce with onion/garlic/spices AHD
  marine adj re: sea AHD/W7
  Marish prop.n marshy Shire area in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  maritime adj re: sea commerce/navigation AHD/W7
  marram n beach grass AHD
  marsh n soft wet land usu. having monocotyledons (grasses/cattails) AHD/W7
  meerkat n small mongoose-like S African mammal AHD
  meerschaum n hydrous magnesium silicate: light, fine white clay/mineral AHD/W7
  mere n sea, lake, pool, sheet of standing water AHD/W7
  mermaid n fabled marine creature: fish-tailed woman W7
  merman, mermen n fabled marine creature: fish-tailed man W7
  Mirrormere prop.n glassy lake in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  morass n marsh, swamp AHD/W7
  Shadowmere prop.n reflecting lake in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  ultramarine adj lit. beyond the sea AHD/W7
  ultramarine n blue pigment: powdered lapis lazuli AHD/W7
British English: ormer n sea-ear, ear-shell, Channel Islands abalone AHD
Middle Dutch: mersch n marsh W7
Dutch: meer n mere TLL
  mierikswortel n horseradish TLL
  moeras n morass W7
Old Saxon: meri n.fem mere ASD
Old High German: meri/mari n.masc/neut mere W7/ASD
  meri-ratih n horseradish KDW
German: Maar n.neut maar, volcanic lake AHD
  Marsch n.fem marsh LRC
  Meer n.neut mere ASD
  Meerrettich n horseradish TLL
  Morast n.masc morass LRC
Old Norse: marr n.masc mere LRC
Icelandic: marr n.masc mere ASD
Gothic: marei n.wk.fem mere LRC
Latin: mare, maris n.neut mere LRC
  marinus adj re: sea W7
  maritimus adj maritime W7
Vulgar Latin: *mara n maar, lake, standing water AHD
Medieval Latin: ultramarinus adj (coming from) beyond the sea W7
Portuguese: bicho-do-mar n beche-de-mer AHD
Old French: cormareng n.masc cormorant W7
  marenc adj re: sea W7
  maresc n marsh W7
Middle French: cormorant n.masc cormorant W7
French: bêche-de-mer n.fem beche-de-mer W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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