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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. mū̆-   (onomatopoeic: to moo, hum, etc.)

Semantic Fields: Sound (n); Various Cries


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mǣw/meāu/mēu n.masc mew IEW/ASD
Middle English: mew n mew W7
  mistik adj mystic W7
  mommen vb to mum W7
  muet adj mute W7
  muten vb to mute W7
  mysterie n mystery W7
English: mew n gull (sea bird) W7
  miosis/myosis n constriction of (eye's) pupil AHD
  moo vb to low, make cow-like noise W7
  mop(e) n.obs mug; fool IEW/W7
  mope vb.arch to gape, stare; act dazed/stupid IEW/W7
  mum n strong ale/beer AHD/W7
  mum vb.trans to act/play in mask/disguise AHD/W7
  mumble vb to mutter, murmur, speak softly IEW
  mump vb to mumble IEW
  mute adj dumb, unable to speak AHD/W7
  mute vb.intrans to void AHD/W7
  mutter vb to mumble, murmur IEW
  mystery n religious truth known by revelation alone AHD/W7
  mystic adj mystical, having spiritual meaning/reality neither sensible nor obvious AHD/W7
Middle Dutch: mēwe n mew ODE
Dutch: meeuw n mew ODE
Old Saxon: mēu n mew ODE
Middle Low German: mēwe n mew ODE
Old High German: māwen vb to cry out W7
  mēh n mew ODE
German: Möwe n mew ASD
  Mumme n mum W7
Old Norse: Már prop.n.masc Mar, Corpse (a dwarf) LRC
  mási n mew SAO
  má(va)r n.masc mew W7/ICE
Icelandic: már n mew ASD
Danish: maage n mew ASD
Swedish: mås n mew SAO
Latin: mutus adj mute W7
  mysterium n.neut secret ceremony re: deity W7
  mysticus adj re: mystery W7
Middle French: meutir vb to silence W7
  momer vb to go masked W7
  muet n.masc mute W7
Greek: μυστήριον n.neut mystery LRC
  mystērion n.neut secret ceremony re: deity W7
  mystikos adj re: mystery W7
  mystos adj keeping silent W7
  mytēs adj mute W7
  myw vb to be closed W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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