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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: mūs   'mouse; muscle'

Semantic Field: Mouse


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mūs n.fem mouse W7
  mus(cel)le/muscle/muxle n.fem mussel W7/ASD
Middle English: mouse n mouse W7
  muscle n mussel W7
  muskadelle n muscatel W7
  muske n musk W7
  notemuge n nutmeg W7
English: epimysium n external connective-tissue muscle sheath AHD/W7
  mouse, mice n.str small rodent(s) AHD/W7
  murine adj re: mouse/mice AHD/W7
  muscat n cultivated grape used to make wine/raisins AHD/W7
  muscatel n sweet dessert wine AHD/W7
  muscle n tissue functioning to produce motion AHD/W7
  musk n substance with penetrating persistent odor AHD/W7
  mussel n marine bivalve mollusk AHD/W7
  must n musk AHD/W7
  musteline adj re: fur-bearing mammal in weasel/marten family AHD
  mysticete adj with baleen plates instead of teeth in upper jaw AHD/CDC
  nutmeg n aromatic seed spice AHD/W7
  perimysium n connective tissue sheathing bundles of muscle fibers AHD/W7
  syringomyelia n chronic progressive spinal-cord disease AHD/W7
Dutch: muis n mouse TLL
  vleermuis n bat TLL
Old Saxon: fletharmūs n bat KSW
Old High German: fledarmūs n bat, moth KNW
  mūs n mouse; muscle W7/ASD
  muscula n.fem mussel W7/ASD
German: Fledermaus n bat TLL
  Maus n.fem mouse; muscle ASD
  Muschel n.fem mussel LRC
  Muskel n.masc muscle TLL
Icelandic: mús n mouse; muscle ASD
Danish: mus n mouse TLL
  muskel n muscle TLL
Swedish: flädermus n bat TLL
  mus n mouse TLL
  muskel n muscle TLL
Latin: mus n.masc mouse, rat W7
  muscada n.fem nutmeg W7
  musculus n.masc muscle W7
Vulgar Latin: muscula n.fem mussel W7
Late Latin: muscus n.masc moss, musk W7
New Latin: -myelia sfx brain tissue W7
  perimysium n.neut perimysium W7
  syringomyelia n.fem syringomyelia W7
Middle French: musc n.masc musk W7
  muscadel n.masc muscatel W7
  muscle n.masc muscle W7
French: muscat n.masc variety of grapes with musk scent W7/R1
Old Provençal: muscadel, moscadel adj resembling musk W7
  muscat n.masc type of wine W7
Provençal: musc n.masc musk W7
  muscat n.masc type of grape W7
Greek: moschos n.masc/fem musk W7
  mys n.masc mouse W7
Persian: mushk n musk, testicle W7
Sanskrit: muṣka n musk, testicle W7
  mūṣ n mouse W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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