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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. ne-, nō-, plural nē̆s-, nō̆s-   'we'

Semantic Field: Human Being

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Scots Gaelic: sinn pron.1.pl we, us TLL
English  
Old English: unc pron.1.du.dat/acc (to) us two TLL
  uncer pron.1.du.gen our two TLL
  uncit pron.1.du.acc us two TLL
  ūre pron.1.pl.gen our, ours W7/ASD
  ūs pron.1.pl.dat/acc us W7
Middle English: oure pron.1.pl.poss our W7
  paternoster n Lord's prayer W7
  us pron.1.pl.obj us W7
English: Nostratic prop.n hypothetical parent of Proto-Indo-European and other reconstructed languages AHD
  nostrum n medicine of secret composition usu. lacking general repute AHD/W7
  our pron.1.pl.poss.attr re: us/ourselves esp. as possessors AHD/W7
  ours pron.1.pl.poss.pred re: us/ourselves esp. as possessors AHD/W7
  paternoster n Lord's prayer AHD/W7
  us pron.1.pl.obj re: we/ourselves AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: ūs pron.1.pl.dat/acc us ASD
  ūser pron.1.pl.gen our ASD
Dutch: ons pron.1.pl.dat/acc (to) us TLL
  ons pron.1.pl.gen.attr our TLL
  onze pron.1.pl.gen.pred ours TLL
Old Saxon: ūs pron.1.pl.dat/acc us ASD
  ūser pron.1.pl.gen our ASD
Old High German: uns pron.1.pl.dat/acc us W7
  unsēr/unsar pron.1.pl.gen our W7/ASD
  unsih pron.1.pl.acc us ASD
German: uns pron.1.pl.dat/acc us LRC
  unser pron.1.pl.gen our LRC
N-Germanic  
Icelandic: okkar pron.1.du.gen our two TLL
  okkur pron.1.du.dat/acc (to) us two TLL
  oss pron.1.pl.dat/acc (to) us ASD
Danish: os pron.1.pl.dat/acc (to) us TLL
Swedish: oss pron.1.pl.dat/acc (to) us TLL
E-Germanic  
Gothic: une/unsis pron.1.pl.dat/acc us ASD
  unsara pron.1.pl.gen our ASD
Italic  
Latin: nos pron.1.pl.nom/acc we W7
  noster, nostra, nostrum pron.1.pl.gen our, ours LRC
Medieval Latin: paternoster n.masc paternoster, Lord's prayer W7
Italian: noi pron.1.pl we, us TLL
Slavic  
Russian: nam pron.1.pl.dat (to) us TLL
  nas pron.1.pl.acc us TLL
Albanian  
Albanian: na pron.1.pl.nom we IEW
  ne pron.1.pl.gen/dat/acc our, us IEW
Hellenic  
Greek: ἡμέτερος pron.1.pl.gen our LRC
  νω pron.1.du we two TLL
  νωι pron.1.du we two TLL

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
acc=accusative (case)
attr=attributive
dat=dative (case)
du=dual (number)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
nom=nominative (case)
obj=objective (case)
pl=plural (number)
poss=possessive (case)
pred=predicative
pron=pronoun
prop=proper

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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