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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ner(-t)-, aner-, əner-?   'vital force; man'

Semantic Fields: Strong, Mighty, Powerful; Man


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English: Alexander prop.n [personal name] AHD
  Alexandrian prop.adj re: Alexander the Great W7
  alexandrine adj/n (re:) 12-syllable poetic verse form AHD/W7
  alexandrite n grass-green chrysoberyl (mineral) AHD/W7
  andr(o)- pfx male, masculine AHD
  android n robot in human form LRC
  Andromeda prop.n (constellation named for) daughter of Cepheus and Cassiopeia (Greek mythology) LRC
  -androus adj.sfx having stamens AHD/W7
  -andry sfx kind/number of husbands AHD
  Nero prop.n Emperor of Rome (AD 54-68) AHD
  Neronic/Neronian prop.adj re: Nero W7
  philander vb to flirt, make love frivolously AHD/W7
Latin: Andromeda n.fem Andromeda W7
  Nero prop.n Nero (Claudius Caesar) W7
  neronianus adj Neronian W7
Middle French: alexandrin adj alexandrine W7
Lithuanian: nóras n.masc wish LRC
  norėti, nóri, norėjo vb to want LRC
Albanian: njeri n.masc person, human being LRC
Homeric Greek: Ἀλέξ-ανδρος prop.n Alexander, lit. defender of men LRC
  ἀνδρόμεος adj human, re: men LRC
Greek: Andromedē n.fem Andromeda W7
  -andros sfx having (such/so many) men W7
  ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός n.masc man LRC
  ἄνθρωπος n.masc person, human being LRC
Classical Armenian: ayr n man LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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