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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ner-   'below, under'

Semantic Fields: Low; Deep


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: norð adv north(wards) LRC
  norðan adv from the north LRC
  Norð-hymbre Northumbrians, Northumbria LRC
  Norð-mann prop.n.masc Norwegian, lit. north-man LRC
  norð-weard adj northward LRC
  Norðweg prop.n.neut Norway, lit. way (leading) north LRC
Middle English: north adj/adv north W7
  northerne adj northern W7
English: Norbury prop.n town a.k.a. Fornost in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Nordic adj re: Scandinavia LRC
  Norse prop.n ancient Scandinavian language spoken by Vikings LRC
  north adv/adj northward; re: the north AHD/W7
  north n direction to left when facing east W9
  Northerland prop.n lands north of Rohan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  northern adj re: region to/toward/in the north AHD/W7
  Northfarthing prop.n Shire quadrant in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  northward adv to/toward the north  
Old Frisian: north adv north(wards) ASD
Dutch: noord adv north W7
  noorden n north TLL
  noordsch adj northern W7
  noorsch adj Norse, Norwegian, Scandinavian W7
Old Saxon: norð adv north(wards) ASD
Old High German: nord adv north W7
  nord-man n Norwegian, lit. north-man ASD
  nordrōni adj northern W7
German: Norden n.masc north LRC
  nordisch adj Nordic LRC
  nördlich adj northern LRC
Old Norse: norðr n north W7
Icelandic: norðarr adv.comp further north ASD
  norðast adv.sup furthest north ASD
  norð-maðr n Norwegian, lit. north-man ASD
  norðr-vegar Norway, lit. way (leading) north ASD
Danish: nord n north TLL
Swedish: norr n north TLL
French: nord adj/n.masc northern; north W7
  nordique adj Nordic, re: the north W7
Greek: nerteros adj lower, infernal W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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