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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: oid-   'to swell; strong'

Semantic Field: Strong, Mighty, Powerful


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ǣt(t)or/ǣtter n.neut pus, atter ASD
  āte/ǣte oats W7/ASD
  āt(t)or/āt(t)er n.neut pus, atter W7/OED/ASD
  āttorcoppa/āttercoppe/āt(t)orcoppe n.fem attercop, lit. venom-spider OED/ASD
Middle English: atter n atter CDC
  attercop(pe) n attercop CDC
  ote n oat W7
English: atter n venom, poison OED
  Attercop prop.n epithet for spider in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
  attercop n poisonous spider OED
  edema n swelling, abnormal serous fluid accumulation AHD/W7
  oat n type of cereal grass AHD/W7
Scots English: ettercap n attercop CDC
Frisian: āat n oats ASD
Dutch: etter n.masc atter ASD
Old Saxon: ettar/ēt(t)ar n.masc atter ASD/CDC
Old High German: eitar/eitter n.neut atter ASD/CDC
Middle High German: eiten vb to burn, sting ASD
  eiter n.neut atter ASD
German: Eiter n.masc pus, atter ASD
Old Norse: át n food ASD
  eitr n.neut atter LRC
Icelandic: eitr n atter CDC
Danish: edder/ædder n.neut atter ASD/CDC
  æddercop/edderkop n attercop, cup of poison ICE/CDC
Swedish: etter n.neut atter ASD
New Latin: edema n.neut edema W7
Greek: oidēma n.neut edema W7
  oidw vb to swell W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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