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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ok̑tō(u)   'eight, octad'

Semantic Field: Number


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ocht nbr.card eight (8) EIE
  ochtmad nbr.ord eighth (8th) EIE
Irish: ocht nbr.card eight (8) LRC
Scots Gaelic: ochd nbr.card eight (8) LRC
Manx: hoght nbr.card eight (8) LRC
Welsh: wyth nbr.card eight (8) EIE
  wythfed nbr.ord eighth (8th) EIE
Old English: e(a)hta/ahta/æhta nbr.card eight (8) W7/ASD
  eahtatīene nbr.card eighteen (18) W7
  eahtatig nbr.card eighty (80) W7
  eahteða/eahtoða nbr.ord eighth (8th) EIE
  hundeahtatig nbr.card hundred eighty (180) W7
Middle English: eighte nbr.card eight (8) W7
  eightetene nbr.card eighteen (18) W7
  eighty nbr.card eighty (80) W7
  octave n octave W7
  Octobre prop.n October W7
English: eight nbr.card 8 AHD/W7
  eighteen nbr.card 18 AHD/W7
  eightfold adj 8 times the number/quantity AHD
  eighty nbr.card 80 AHD/W7
  octad n group/sequence of eight AHD
  octahedron n solid with 8 plane faces W7
  Octans prop.n southern circumpolar constellation AHD
  octant n position/aspect of celestial body distant from another by 45 degrees AHD/W7
  octastyle adj/n (re:) building having 8 columns in front AHD/CDC
  octave n eight day period beginning with festival day AHD/W7
  octavo n (size of) piece of paper: 1/8 of full sheet AHD/W7
  octet n (composition for) 8 voices/instruments AHD
  oct(o)- pfx eight AHD/W7
  October prop.n 10th month (in Gregorian calendar) AHD/W7
  octodecimo n eighteenmo: 1/18th sheet of paper AHD/W7
  octogenarian n person in his/her eighties AHD/W7
  octonary adj/n (re:) set/group of eight AHD
  octothorpe n hash (#) symbol AHD
  octuple adj/n (re:) eightfold amount/number AHD
  Oktoberfest prop.n autumn festival emphasizing merrymaking and beer-drinking AHD
  trisoctahedron n regular solid with 24 congruent faces AHD/W7
Old Frisian: achta/acht(e) nbr.card eight (8) ASD
Dutch: acht nbr.card eight (8) ASD
Old Saxon: ahto nbr.card eight (8) ASD
Old High German: ahtō nbr.card eight (8) W7/ASD
  ahtodo nbr.ord eighth (8th) EIE
Middle High German: aht/eht nbr.card eight (8) ASD
German: acht nbr.card eight (8) ASD
  Oktober n.masc October LRC
  Oktoberfest prop.n.neut Oktoberfest AHD
Old Norse: átta nbr.card eight (8) LRC
  ātti nbr.ord eighth (8th) EIE
  áttrœðr adj eighty years old LRC
Icelandic: ātta nbr.card eight (8) ASD
Danish: otte nbr.card eight (8) ASD
Swedish: åtta nbr.card eight (8) ASD
Gothic: ahtau nbr.card eight (8) ASD
Crimean Gothic: *aþe/athe nbr.card eight (8) CGo
Latin: octans, octantis adj/vb.ptc eighth of a circle W7
  octava n.fem eighth hour W7
  octavus, octava, octavum nbr.ord eighth (8th) W7
  octō nbr.card eight (8) W7
  October prop.n.masc October, eighth month (in Roman calendar) W7
  octodecim nbr.card eighteen (18) W7
  octodecimus nbr.ord eighteenth (18th) W7
  octogenarius adj containing eighty W7
  octogeni adv eighty each W7
  octoginta nbr.card eighty (80) W7
Medieval Latin: octava nbr.ord.fem eighth (8th) W7
Portuguese: oito nbr.card eight (8) TLL
Spanish: ocho nbr.card eight (8) ASD
Old French: Octobre n.masc October W7
French: huit nbr.card eight (8) ASD
Italian: otto nbr.card eight (8) ASD
Old Prussian: asman nbr.ord eighth (8th) EIE
Lithuanian: ãšmas/aštuñtas nbr.ord eighth (8th) EIE
  aštuoni nbr.card eight (8) EIE
Latvian: astôtais nbr.ord eighth (8th) EIE
  astuôni nbr.card eight (8) EIE
Old Church Slavonic: osmĭ nbr.card eight (8) EIE
  osmŭ nbr.ord eighth (8th) EIE
Russian: vósem nbr.card eight (8) EIE
  vosĭmój nbr.ord eighth (8th) EIE
Albanian: tetë nbr.card eight (8) EIE
  tetë(t) nbr.ord eighth (8th) EIE
Homeric Greek: ὀγδόατος nbr.ord eighth (8th) EIE
Greek: ὄγδοος nbr.ord eighth (8th) EIE
  ὀκτώ nbr.card eight (8) EIE
Armenian: ut' nbr.card eight (8) EIE
Avestan: ašta nbr.card eight (8) EIE
  aštəma- nbr.ord eighth (8th) EIE
Sanskrit: aṣṭamá- nbr.ord eighth (8th) EIE
  ashtan nbr.card eight (8) ASD
Tocharian B: okt nbr.card eight (8) EIE
  oktante nbr.ord eighth (8th) EIE
Tocharian A: okät nbr.card eight (8) EIE
  oktänt nbr.ord eighth (8th) EIE


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
EIE=J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams, eds. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (1997)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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