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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ong-   'to anoint'

Semantic Field: to Rub

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: prēon n.masc preen W7/ASD
Middle English: anointen vb to anoint W7
  inunction n inunction W7
  oignement, ointment n ointment W7
  preinen vb to preen W7
  prene n preen W7
  unctioun n unction W7
  unctuous adj unctuous W7
English: anoint vb.trans to apply oil/oily substance AHD/W7
  inunction n anointing, act of applying oil/ointment AHD/W7
  ointment n salve/unguent for skin application AHD/W7
  preen n pin, brooch AHD/W7
  preen vb to trim/dress with bill (re: bird) AHD/W7
  unction n act of anointing (as rite of healing/consecration) AHD/W7
  unctuous adj oily, fatty AHD/W7
  unguent n ointment, healing/soothing salve AHD/W7
Scots English: pre(y)ne n preen, pin made of wire ASD
W-Germanic  
Dutch: priem n preen ASD
Old High German: ancho n butter W7
Middle High German: pfrieme n awl W7
German: Pfriem n preen ASD
N-Germanic  
Icelandic: prjónn n preen, knitting pin ASD
Italic  
Latin: inunctio, inunctionis n.fem unction W7
  inunguo, inunguere, inunxi, inunctus vb to anoint W7
  unctio, unctionis n.fem unction W7
  unctum n.neut ointment W7
  unguentum n.neut balm, unguent W7
  unguo, unguere, unxi, unctus vb to smear, anoint W7
Medieval Latin: unctuosus adj creamy, unctuous W7
Old French: enoindre vb to anoint AHD
  enoint vb.ptc anointed AHD
  oignement n.masc balm, unguent W7
Middle French: enoindre vb to anoint W7
  enoint vb.ptc anointed W7
  unctueux adj creamy, unctuous W7
Indic  
Sanskrit: añjati vb to salve W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
ptc=participle
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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