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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. op-   'to work, perform, operate, bring about'

Semantic Field: to Work, Toil


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: efnan vb.wk to perform W7/ASD
Middle English: copie n copy W7
  copious adj copious W7
  enuren vb to inure W7
  manouren vb to manure W7
  stover n stover W7
  ure n use, custom W7
English: cooperate vb.intrans to act/work with another/others AHD/W7
  copious adj rich, yielding in abundance AHD/W7
  copy n transcript/imitation/reproduction of original (text/engraving/photograph) AHD/W7
  cornucopia n lit. horn of plenty AHD/W7
  inure vb to habituate, accustom to accept something not desirable AHD/W7
  maneuver n military/naval evolution AHD/W7
  manure vb.trans to till, cultivate AHD/W7
  officinal adj available without special preparation/compounding AHD/W7
  omni- pfx all AHD
  omnibus n bus, large vehicle for public transportation AHD/W7
  omnium-gatherum n hodgepodge, miscellaneous collection AHD/W7
  opera n drama set to vocal music AHD/W7
  operate vb to function, perform work/labor AHD/W7
  operator n worker, one who operates (something) LRC
  operose adj diligent, laborious AHD/W7
  optimal adj most desirable/satisfactory W7
  optimum n most favorable degree/amount/condition AHD
  opulent adj re: wealth/plenty/affluence AHD/W7
  opus n work AHD/W7
  stover n fodder AHD/W7
Latin: copia, copiae n.fem wealth, abundance LRC
  copiosus, copiosa, copiosum adj rich, abundant LRC
  officina n.fem workshop W7
  omnis, omnis, omne adj all LRC
  opera, operae n.fem opus, service, exertion LRC
  operarius n operator TLL
  operor, operari, operatus vb.dep to operate W7
  operosus adj laborious W7
  opifex, opificis n.masc/fem workman W7
  ops, opis n.fem aid, support, assistance LRC
  opulentus adj rich W7
  opus, operis n.neut opus LRC
Late Latin: cooperor, cooperari, cooperatus vb.dep to work together W7
  cornucopia n.fem horn of plenty W7
Medieval Latin: copia n.fem copy; multitude W7
  manuopera work done by hand W7
  officina n.fem storeroom W7
  officinalis adj of a storeroom W7
Portuguese: obreiro n operator TLL
Spanish: obrero n operator TLL
Old French: estoveir vb to be necessary W7
  maneuvre n.fem work done by hand W7
Anglo-French: estovers necessary supplies W7
Middle French: copie n.fem copy W7
  manouvrer vb to work by hand W7
  uevre n.fem work, practice W7
French: manoeuvre n.fem maneuver W7
  omnibus n.masc ancient public transportation device W7
  ouvrier n operator TLL
Italian: √≤pera n.fem work, action, performance; opera W7
  operaio n operator TLL
Sanskrit: apas n opus W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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