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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: pasto-   'firm, fast, solid'

Semantic Field: Strong, Mighty, Powerful

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: fæst adj fast W7
  fæstan vb to fast W7
  fæste/feste adv fast LRC
  fæstnian/festnian vb.wk to fasten W7/ASD
  scamfæst adj shamefaced W7
Middle English: fast adj fast W7
  fast(n)en vb to fasten W7
  shamefast adj shamefaced W7
English: avast vb.imp stop, cease, hold fast AHD/W7
  breakfast n first meal of day AHD/W7
  fast adj firm, snug, fixed, bound, secure AHD/W7
  fast adv firmly, in fixed manner W7
  fast vb.intrans to abstain from food AHD/W7
  fasten vb to affix, make fast AHD/W7
  Fastred prop.n personal name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Halfast prop.n hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Hamfast prop.n hobbit name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  handfast n.arch contract, covenant AHD/W7
  Holfast prop.n hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  shamefaced adj bashful, showing modesty AHD/W7
  steadfast adj firmly fixed in place AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: fest adj fast ASD
  festia vb to fast ASD
  festigia vb to fasten ASD
Frisian: fest adj fast ASD
  festgjen vb to fasten ASD
Middle Dutch: vast adj/adv fast AHD
Dutch: vast adj fast ASD
  vasten vb to fast ASD
  vesten vb to fasten ASD
Old Saxon: fast adj fast ASD
  fest(i)an vb to fasten ASD
Old High German: fastēn vb to fast ASD
  fasti/festi adj fast ASD
  fastjan/festan vb to fasten ASD
  festinōn vb to fasten W7
Middle High German: vast/veste adj fast ASD
  vasten vb to fast ASD
  vesten vb to fasten ASD
German: fasten vb to fast ASD
  fest adj fast ASD
  festen/befestigen vb to fasten ASD
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: fastr adj fast; hard, severe; continuous LRC
Icelandic: fasta vb to fast ASD
  festa vb to fasten ASD
Danish: fast adj fast ASD
  faste vb to fast ASD
  fæaste vb to fasten ASD
Swedish: fast adj fast ASD
  fasta vb to fast ASD
  fästa vb to fasten ASD
E-Germanic  
Gothic: fastan vb to fast, fasten ASD
Armenian  
Armenian: hast adj fast W7/HH

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
adv=adverb(ial)
arch=archaic
imp=imperative (mood)
intrans=intransitive
n=noun
prop=proper
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
HH=Heinrich Hübschmann: Armenische Grammatik (1897)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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