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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. pē̆d-, pō̆d-   'foot'

Semantic Field: Foot


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: bær-fōt adj barefoot MEV
  fecc(e)an/fæccan vb.wk to fetch W7/ASD
  feti(g)an/fetigean vb.wk to fetch W7/ASD
  fōt n.masc foot LRC
  trefet n trivet W7
Middle English: antipodes antipodes, those with feet opposite ours AHD
  barfot adj barefoot MEV
  empechen vb to impeach W7
  empeiren vb to impair W7
  fecchen vb to fetch W7
  feter n fetter W7
  fetlak n fetlock W7
  fitlok n fetlock W7
  fot n foot W7
  paun n pawn W7
  pewe n pew W7
  trevet n trivet W7
  vampe n sock W7
English: antipodes direct/diametrical opposites AHD
  apodal adj having no feet/analogous appendages AHD/W7
  appoggiatura n embellishing note/tone preceding essential melodic note/tone AHD/W7
  barefoot adj/adv unshod, without footwear W7
  cypripedium n leafy-stemmed terrestrial orchid AHD/W7
  diapedesis n blood cell passage through capillaries into tissues AHD/W7
  expedite vb.trans to execute promptly AHD/W7
  fetch vb to go/come after and bring/take back AHD/W7
  fetlock n projection bearing hair tuft on back of leg above hoof (of horse) AHD/W7
  fetter n chain/shackle for foot/feet AHD/W7
  Firefoot prop.n Eomer's horse in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  foot, feet n.str end(s) of vertebrate leg(s) upon which individual stands AHD/W7
  footpad n one who robs pedestrians AHD/W7
  Harfoots hobbit tribe in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  impair vb.trans to damage, diminish in value/strength/quantity AHD/W7
  impeach vb.trans to bring accusation against AHD/W7
  impeccable adj not able/liable to sin AHD/W7
  impede vb.trans to block, interfere with progress of AHD/W7
  Lightfoot prop.n Snowmane's dam in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  lycopodium n erect/creeping club moss AHD/W7
  millipede n myriopod having cylindrical segmented body AHD/W7
  monopodium n (plant with) single main axis of growth AHD
  octopus n 8-armed cephalopod mollusk AHD/W7
  Oedipus prop.n man who unwittingly killed his father and married his mother (Greek mythology) LRC
  pada n foot: Sanskrit poetic metric unit AHD
  paisa n SE Asian currency unit AHD
  pajama(s) n loose lightweight trousers AHD/W7
  parallelepiped n prism with parallelogram bases AHD/W7
  pawn n something delivered/deposited as security for loan AHD/W7
  peccadillo n slight offense AHD/W7
  peccant adj sinful, guilty of moral offense AHD/W7
  peccavi n acknowledgment of sin AHD/W7
  -ped n.sfx foot AHD/W7
  pedal adj re: foot AHD/W7
  pedal n lever acted on by foot AHD/W7
  pedate adj having a foot AHD/W7
  pedestrian adj afoot, walking, going on foot AHD/OED
  pedestrian n walker, one going on foot W7
  pedicel n slender plant stalk AHD/W7
  pedicure n cosmetic care of feet/toenails AHD
  peduncle n stalk bearing flower (cluster) AHD/W7
  pejoration n process/condition of worsening/degenerating AHD
  pelecypod adj re: hatchet-shaped foot AHD/CDC
  pelecypod n bivalve mollusk: clam, scallop, oyster AHD
  peon n footman, foot-soldier AHD/W7
  pes n distal segment of vertebrate hind limb AHD/W7
  pessimism n inclination to emphasize adversity AHD/W7
  pew n compartment (in church) with several seats AHD/W7
  phalarope n small shore bird resembling sandpiper AHD/W7
  pie n early monetary unit of India/Pakistan AHD/W7
  pilot n helmsman, one who steers ship AHD/W7
  pioneer n member of military unit of construction engineers AHD/W7
  platypus n small aquatic oviparous mammal AHD/W7
  -pod n.sfx (part resembling) foot AHD/W7
  podiatry n chiropody AHD/W7
  podite n segment of arthropod limb AHD
  podium n pedestal, elevated platform AHD
  podophyllin n bitter resin from May apple root AHD
  podzol n leached soil under cool humid vegetation AHD
  polyp n coelenterate having typically hollow cylindrical body AHD/W7
  polypod adj having many feet AHD
  Proudfoot prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  pseudopod n cellular membrane extension with which some cells/organisms move TLL
  Puddifoot prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  pug n footprint AHD/W7
  rhizopus n mold fungus causing decay AHD/W7
  scaphopod n/adj tooth-shell mollusk; having foot fit for burrowing AHD
  sesquipedal adj sesquipedalian AHD
  sesquipedalian adj one and a half feet tall/long AHD
  sympodium n primary stem/axis developed from short lateral branches AHD
  teapoy n 3-legged ornamental stand AHD/W7
  theropod n large carnivorous saurischian dinosaur AHD
  trapezium n quadrilateral with no parallel sides AHD/W7
  tripedal adj having 3 feet AHD
  trivet n tripod, 3-legged stand AHD/W7
  vamp n part of shoe/boot-upper covering forepart of foot AHD/W7
  Whitfoot prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Wingfoot prop.n man a.k.a. Strider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  xenopus n aquatic tongueless clawed frog AHD
Old Frisian: faka vb to fetch, prepare, make ready ASD
  fot n.masc foot ASD
Frisian: foet n.masc foot ASD
Dutch: veter n lace TLL
  voet n.masc foot ASD
Old Saxon: fōt/fuot n.masc foot ASD
Low German: voot n.masc foot ASD
Old High German: fuoz n.masc foot ASD
Middle High German: vuoz n.masc foot ASD
German: Fuß n.masc foot LRC
Old Norse: feta vb to step, proceed in LRC
  fótr n.masc foot; leg LRC
Icelandic: fōtr n.masc foot ASD
Danish: fod n.masc/fem foot ASD
Swedish: fot n.masc foot ASD
Gothic: fōtus n.str.masc foot LRC
Umbrian: persom-e n ground RPN
  peřum n ground RPN
Latin: antipodes people having feet opposite ours AHD
  expedio, expedire vb to arrange, replace, set free W7
  expeditus vb.ptc arranged, replaced, set free W7
  impeccabilis adj incapable of fault W7
  impedio, impedīre vb to impede W7
  millepeda n.fem small crawling animal W7
  Oedipus n.masc Oedipus W7
  oppidum, oppidi n.neut city LRC
  peccāns, peccāntis vb.ptc sinning, making a mistake W7
  peccatum n.neut sin, mistake W7
  peccō, peccāre, peccāvī, peccātum vb to sin, stumble, commit a fault W7
  pedalis adj re: feet W7
  pedatus adj ill set on his feet W7
  pedes n.masc pedestrian W7
  pedester, pedestris, pedestre adj pedestrian W7
  pedica n.fem trap, fetter W7
  pediculus n.masc.dim little foot W7
  pēs, pedis n.masc foot RPN
  pessimus adj.sup worst W7
  podium n.neut podium, parapet W7
  polypus n.masc polyp, octopus W7
  tripes, tripedis adj three-footed W7
Late Latin: Cypris prop.n.fem Venus W7
  impedico, impedicāre vb to fetter W7
  pejoro, pejorāre vb to make worse W7
Medieval Latin: pedo n.masc peon W7
New Latin: cypripedium n.neut Lady's Slipper (orchid), lit. sandal of Venus W7
  diapedesis n.fem oozing through W7
  lycopodium n.neut (genus name) W7
  Octopus n.masc (genus name) W7
  pedicellus n.masc.dim little foot W7
  pedunculus n.masc peduncle W7
  phalaropus n.masc small shorebird W7
  platypus n.masc small aquatic mammal W7
  rhizopus n.masc (genus of) mold fungi W7
  trapezium n.neut small table W7
Portuguese:  n foot TLL
  peão n.masc peon W7
Spanish: pecadillo n.masc.dim small sin, unimportant thing W7
  pecado n.masc sin W7
  pie n foot TLL
Old French: avantpié n.masc fore foot W7
  peon n.masc peon W7
  peonier n.masc peon W7
Middle French: empeechier vb to hinder W7
  empeirer vb to make worse W7
  pan n.masc pane of cloth W7
  pédale n.fem pedal W7
  pilote n.masc pilot (of ship) W7
  pionier n.masc peon, settler W7
  polype n.masc octopus, nasal tumor W7
  puie n.fem balustrade W7
French: pessimisme n.masc pessimism W7
  phalarope n.masc small shorebird W7
  pied n foot TLL
  pion n.masc peon W7
Italian: appoggiare vb to lean on AHD
  appoggiatura n.fem leaning, resting W7/CID
  pedale n.masc pedal W7
  piede n foot TLL
  pilòta n.masc pilot W7
Lithuanian: pãdas n shoe, sole of foot LRC
  pėsčias, pėsčià adj on foot LRC
Latvian: acupedius adj swift-footed LRC
Old Church Slavonic: pasti, padǫ, padeši vb to fall LRC
  pods n ground LRC
Homeric Greek: πούς, ποδός n.masc foot LRC
Greek: antipous adj with feet opposite AHD
  apous adj without feet W7
  diapēdan vb to ooze through W7
  diapēdēsis n.fem act of oozing through W7
  epipedon n.neut plane surface W7
  epipedos adj flat W7
  Oidipous n.masc Oedipus W7
  parallēlepipedon n.neut 6-faced polygon of parallelograms W7
  parallēlos adj parallel W7
  pedilon n.neut sandal W7
  πέδον n.neut ground, earth RPN
  peza n.fem ankle W7
  pēda steering oars W7
  pēdan vb to leap W7
  pēdon n.neut oar W7
  platypous adj flat-footed W7
  podion n.neut base, little foot W7
  polypous n.masc polyp, octopus W7
  ποῦς n.masc foot LRC
  trapeza n.fem table W7
  trapezion n.neut small table W7
  phalaris n.fem coot W7
  phalios adj with white spot W7
Medieval Greek: pēdōtēs n.masc ship's pilot W7
Luwian: pa-ta-aš n foot RPN
  pati- n foot LRC
Lycian: pddãt- n place RPN
  pddẽn- n place, precinct RPN
Hittite: pata- n foot LRC
  pí-e-da-an n place RPN
Classical Armenian: otn n foot LRC
Persian:  n leg W7
Avestan: pad- n foot LRC
Sanskrit: padám n step, track, spot RPN
  pā́t n foot RPN
  pādikā n quarter W7
Hindi: tipaī n three-legged ornamental stand W7
  pag n foot W7
  pāī n former monetary unit of India W7
  pājāma n pajamas W7
Tocharian B: ptsa n foot LRC
Tocharian A: päts n foot LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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