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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: pei̯(ə)-, pī̆-   'fat; milk'

Semantic Field: Milk

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: Ériu n Ireland W7
English  
Old English: fǣt(t)/fett adj/vb.ptc fat, fatted ASD
  fǣt(ti)an vb.wk to cram, fatten W7/AHD
  Īras prop.n.pl the Irish (people) AHD/ASD
  pic n.neut pitch W7/ASD
  pīn n.fem anguish, punishment W7/ASD
  pīnian vb.wk to pine, torment W7/ASD
  pīn-trēow n.neut pine tree ASD
  pīn-trēowen adj re: pine tree ASD
Middle English: apayed adj/vb.ptc pleased, content, satisfied MEV
  Erse prop.n Erse W7
  fat adj fat W7
  pich n pitch W7
  pinen vb to pine W7
  pippe n pip W7
English: Erin prop.n female given name; (poetic) Ireland LRC
  Erse prop.n Irish: Gaelic language of Ireland/Scotland LRC
  fat adj plump, obese, fattened AHD/W7
  Irish prop.adj re: the Irish W7
  Irish prop.n.pl natives/inhabitants of Ireland AHD
  pay vb.trans to coat with waterproof substance AHD/W7
  piceous adj re: pitch AHD/W7
  picoline n liquid pyridine base found in coal tar AHD/W7
  pine n coniferous evergreen tree W7
  pine vb.intrans to languish, lose health/vigor AHD/W7
  pineal adj re: small conical brain appendage AHD/W7
  pinnace n light sailing ship (used as tender) AHD/W7
  pinon n low-growing nut pine AHD/W7
  pinot n red/white grape variety AHD
  pip n scale/crust on tongue (a bird disorder) AHD/W7
  pitch n dark/black viscous residue from heated tars AHD/W7
  pitchblende n massive uraninite (chief source of uranium) AHD/W7
  pittosporum n evergreen shrub native to warm regions AHD
  pituitary adj re: small oval endocrine brain organ AHD/W7
  propionic adj re: acid in monatomic fatty series AHD
Scots English: Erisch prop.adj re: Erse W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: fat adj fat ASD
Frisian: fet adj fat ASD
Dutch: pijnboom n pine TLL
  vet adj fat ASD
Old Saxon: feit adj fat RPN
Old Low German: pik n pitch ASD
Old High German: feiz(i)t adj fat W7/ASD
  peh n pitch ASD
  pfiffīz n pip W7
  pīnōn vb to pine, torment ASD
Middle High German: veiʒ/veiʒ(e)t adj fat ASD
German: fett/feist adj fat ASD
  Pech n.neut pitch W7
  Pechblende n.fem pitchblende W7
N-Germanic  
Icelandic: bik n pitch ASD
  feitr adj fat ASD
  Írar prop.n the Irish (people) ASD
  pína vb to pine, torment ASD
Danish: fe(e)d adj fat ASD
Swedish: fet adj fat ASD
Italic  
Latin: opimus adj fat, copious W7
  piceus adj re: pitch W7
  pico, picāre vb to smear with pitch W7
  pinea n.fem pine cone W7
  pineus adj re: pine W7
  pīnus, pīnūs/pīnī n.fem pine, fir, spruce W7
  pituita n.fem phlegm; pip; tree sap W7
  pix, picis n.fem pitch W7
  poena n.fem pain, punishment W7
Vulgar Latin: pipita n.fem phlegm; pip; tree sap W7
Old Spanish: pinaza n.fem pinnace W7
  pino n.masc pine W7
Spanish: piña n.fem pine cone W7
  piñón n.masc pine nut W7
American Spanish: piñón adj good looking W7
Old French: apaier vb to please, satisfy MEV
  payer vb to pay MEV
Middle French: pinace n.fem pinnace W7
  pinéal adj pineal W7
French: payer vb to pay W7
  pin n pine LRC
  pinéal adj re: reptilian organ W7
Italian: pino n pine LRC
Baltic  
Lithuanian: píenas n milk RPN
  píeva n.fem meadow LRC
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: pitěti, pitějǫ, pitěješi vb to nourish LRC
Hellenic  
Greek: πῑ́ων adj fat, rich RPN
Indic  
Sanskrit: páyate vb to swell, fatten, abound RPN
  páyas- n milk RPN
  pī́van- adj fat, full, swelling RPN

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
intrans=intransitive
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
prop=proper
ptc=participle
trans=transitive
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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