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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. pek̑-, pēk̑-, pōk̑-   'to be joyful, make pretty'

Semantic Fields: Glad, Joyful; Beautiful


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fæg(e)n adj fain W7/ASD
  fæg(e)r adj fair ASD
  fæger n.fem fairness, beauty ASD
  fæg(e)re/fegere adv fairly, gently, beautifully ASD
  fagan adj glad W7
  fagnian vb.wk to rejoice W7/ASD
Middle English: fagen adj fain W7
  fager/fair adj fair W7
  faunen vb to fawn W7
  fayn adj fain W7
English: fain adj glad, pleased, happy, joyful AHD/W7
  fain adv rather, willingly W7
  fair adj fit, pleasing, beautiful AHD/W7
  Fairbairn prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  fairly adv suitably, handsomely, becomingly W7
  fawn vb.intrans to show affection AHD/W7
Old Saxon: fagan adj fain ASD
  fagar adj fair, adapted ASD
Old High German: fagar adj fair, adapted ASD
  fagarī n.fem beauty, fairness ASD
Middle High German: fager adj fair, adapted ASD
Old Norse: fagna, fagnað vb to be fain LRC
  fagr(an) adj fair LRC
  fegiun adj fain W7
Icelandic: fagr adj fair ASD
  feginn adj fain ASD
Danish: fager/fauer/faver adj fair, adapted ASD
Swedish: fager adj fair, adapted ASD
Gothic: faginōn vb.wk.II to rejoice LRC
  fagrs adj fair, adapted ASD
  fullafahjan vb.wk.I to serve, satisfy LRC
Lithuanian: puošti vb to adorn, decorate W7/LD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LD=Bronius Piesarskas and Bronius Svecevicius: Lithuanian Dictionary (1994)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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