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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: pek-   'to cook'

Semantic Field: to Cook


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: coca n cook ASD
  cucann n kitchen ASD
Cornish: cegin/keghin n.fem kitchen ASD
  cog n.masc cook ASD
Welsh: cegin n.fem kitchen ASD
  cōg n cook ASD
Old English: āfigen adj fried W7
  cōc n.masc cook ASD
  cycene/cicene n.fem kitchen W7/ASD
  cyln n kiln W7
Middle English: bisquite n biscuit W7
  cook n cook W7
  kichene n kitchen W7
  kilne n kiln W7
  quiture n quittor W7
English: apricot n deciduous Asian tree with fleshy succulent fruit AHD
  biscotto n biscuit, twice-baked cookie AHD
  biscuit n hard/crisp dry baked product AHD/W7
  concoct vb.trans to prepare (a meal) by combining crude materials AHD/W7
  cook n one who cooks AHD/W7
  cook vb to prepare food/meals LRC
  cuisine n manner of preparing food AHD/W7
  culinary adj re: kitchen/cookery AHD/W7
  decoct vb.trans to extract flavor by boiling AHD/W7
  drupe n one-seeded indehiscent fruit AHD/W7
  dyspepsia n indigestion AHD/W7
  kiln n oven/furnace for processing substance by firing/drying AHD/W7
  kitchen n room/place with cooking facilities AHD/W7
  pepo n many-seeded fruit of gourd family AHD/W7
  pepsin n proteinase in stomach that digests proteins AHD/W7
  peptic adj digestive, re: digestion AHD/W7
  peptize vb.trans to create colloidal solution AHD/W7
  peptone n water-soluble result of partial protein hydrolysis AHD/W7
  precocious adj very early in development/occurrence AHD/W7
  pukka adj authentic, genuine AHD/W7
  pumpion n pumpkin AHD/W7
  pumpkin n round yellow/orange gourd AHD/W7
  quittor n purulent inflammation of feet (esp. in horses/asses) AHD/W7
  ricotta n soft Italian cheese AHD
British English: peptise vb.trans to peptize LRC
Dutch: abrikoos n apricot TLL
  keuken n.fem kitchen ASD
  kok n.masc cook ASD
Old Saxon: kok n.masc cook ASD
Low German: kokk n cook ASD
Old High German: chuhhina/kuchina n.fem kitchen W7/ASD
  koch n.masc cook ASD
Middle High German: koch n.masc cook ASD
  küche/kuche(n) n.fem kitchen ASD
German: Aprikose n apricot TLL
  Koch n.masc cook ASD
  Küche n.fem kitchen ASD
  Pepsin n.neut pepsin W7
  Pepton n peptone W7
Icelandic: kock-hūs n kitchen, lit. cook-house ASD
  kokkr n.masc cook ASD
Danish: abrikos n apricot TLL
  kjökken n.neut kitchen ASD
  kok n.masc/fem cook ASD
Swedish: aprikos n apricot TLL
  kock n.masc cook ASD
  kök n.neut kitchen ASD
Latin: coctura n.fem act of cooking W7
  coctus vb.ptc cooked W7
  cocus/coquus n.masc cook, chef ASD
  concoctus vb.ptc cooked together W7
  concoquō, concoquere vb to cook together W7
  coquō, coquere vb to cook W7
  culina n.fem kitchen W7
  culinarius adj re: kitchen/cooking W7
  decoctus vb.ptc cooked W7
  decoquo, decoquere vb to cook, boil, melt W7
  drupa n.fem overripe olive W7
  dyspepsia n.fem indigestion W7
  pepo n.masc pepo, melon W7
  pepticus adj peptic W7
  praecox, praecocis adj precocious, early ripening W7
Late Latin: coquina n.fem kitchen W7
Medieval Latin: bis-coctus adj twice-cooked AHD
New Latin: drupa n.fem one-seeded indehiscent fruit W7
Spanish: cocina n.fem kitchen ASD
Old French: biscuit n biscuit AHD
  quiture n.fem act of boiling W7
Middle French: bescuit n.masc twice-cooked bread W7
  pain n.masc bread W7
French: abricot n apricot LRC
  cuisine n.fem kitchen W7
  pompon n.masc pumpion W7
Italian: albicocca n apricot LRC
  biscotto n.masc biscotto LRC
  cucina n.fem kitchen ASD
  cuóco n.masc cook ASD
Lithuanian: kepù vb to grind LRC
  kukne n kitchen ASD
Old Church Slavonic: kuchari n cook ASD
  peko vb to grind LRC
Russian: kuchnja n kitchen ASD
Homeric Greek: πέπων adj ripe, mellow; pet, dear; coward, weakling LRC
  πέσσω vb to cook, bake; ripen; digest LRC
Greek: dryppa n.fem olive W7
  dyspepsia n.fem indigestion W7
  peptein vb to cook, digest W7
  peptikos adj peptic W7
  peptos adj cooked, digested W7
  pepsis n.fem digestion W7
Late Greek: πραικόκιον n apricot LRC
Armenian: hac' n bread LRC
Sanskrit: pakva adj cooked; ripe, solid W7
  pácanti vb to cook, fry LRC
Hindi: pakkā adj cooked, ripe, solid W7
Tocharian A: päk- vb to cook, be cooked LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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