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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. pel-, pelə-, plē-   'to pour, fill; full, plenary; town?'

Semantic Fields: to Pour; Full; Town, City


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: (h)il adj many RPN
  lán adj full RPN
  lín(a)id vb to fill RPN
Irish: feal adj fell, bad, evil, naughty ASD
Breton: leun adj full RPN
Cornish: le(u)n/luen adj full RPN
Welsh: llawn adj full RPN
Old English: æl-fæle/eal-felo adj dire, baleful, lit. all-fell ASD/RPN
  eal-fela adj very much, lit. all-much LRC
  fæle/fel(o) adj fell, baleful, pernicious ASD
  fe(a)la/fæla/feola adv/adj.indec very; much, many ASD
  fīfealde n butterfly LRC
  folc n.neut folk LRC
  ful(l) adj full, filled RPN/ASD
  fulla n fullness RPN
  fyllan vb.wk to fill (up) RPN/ASD
  psealm n.masc psalm W7/ASD
  Winter-fylleþ prop.n October, lit. winter-fills (month) ASD
Middle English: accomplisshen vb to accomplish W7
  complement n complement W7
  complet adj complete W7
  fel adj fell W7
  fillen vb to fill W7
  folk n folk W7
  full adj full W7
  implement n implement W7
  palpable adj palpable W7
  pavilon n pavilion W7
  plenitude n plenitude W7
  plente n plenty W7
  plural n plural W7
  policie n government, policy: sagacity W7
  politik adj politic W7
  poly- pfx poly- W7
  psalm n psalm W7
  psalterie n psaltery W7
  replenisshen vb to replenish W7
  replete adj replete W7
  supplien vb to supply W7
  surplus n surplus W7
English: accomplish vb.trans to perform, execute fully AHD/W7
  acropolis n upper fortified part of ancient Greek city AHD/W7
  complement n something that completes/fills up/makes perfect AHD/W7
  complete adj entire, possessing all necessary parts AHD/W7
  compliment n expression of respect/esteem/affection/admiration AHD/W7
  comply vb.intrans to be ceremoniously courteous AHD/W7
  cosmopolis n cosmopolitan city AHD/W7
  cosmopolite n cosmopolitan person/organism AHD/W7
  deplete vb.trans to empty of principal substance AHD/W7
  expletive adj serving to fill up AHD/W7
  Felaróf prop.n Eorl's horse in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  fell adj cruel, fierce, savage, deadly W7
  felon n villain, criminal, evildoer W7
  fill vb to add/insert as much/many as is normal/possible AHD/W7
  Folca prop.n 13th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Folcred prop.n Rohan prince in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Folcwine prop.n 14th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  folk n people, kindred tribes forming nation AHD/W7
  folkmoot n general assembly of shire residents AHD/W7
  full adj containing as much/many as is normal/possible AHD/W7
  Herrenvolk prop.n master race AHD/W7
  implement n article serving to equip AHD/W7
  metropolis n mother city/state of colony AHD/W7
  necropolis n cemetery AHD/W7
  nonplus n state of confusion/perplexity/bewilderment AHD
  nonplus vb to bewilder, be/put at loss AHD
  palp n palpus: arthropod mouthpart AHD/W7
  palpable adj tangible, able to be felt/touched AHD/W7
  palpate vb.trans to examine by touch AHD/W7
  palpation n examination by touch AHD/W7
  palpebra n eyelid AHD
  palpitate vb.intrans to throb, beat rapidly/strongly AHD/W7
  paludal adj marshy, re: fens/marshes AHD/W7
  papilionaceous adj resembling butterfly (esp. in shape) AHD/W7
  papillon n slender toy spaniel (dog) resembling chihuahua AHD/W7
  papillote n curlpaper AHD/W7
  pavilion n large sumptuous tent AHD/W7
  piu adv more AHD/W7
  plebe n common person; military academy freshman AHD/W7
  plebeian n Roman commoner AHD/W7
  plebiscite n direct vote where electorate may accept/refuse proposal AHD
  plebs n populace, common people AHD
  pleiotaxy n increase of number of whorls in inflorescence AHD
  pleiotropism n control (by single gene) of multiple phenotypic effects AHD
  Pleistocene adj re: geologic epoch early in Quaternary LRC
  plenary adj full, complete AHD/W7
  plenipotentiary n person invested with power to transact business AHD/W7
  plenitude n fullness, completeness AHD/W7
  plenty n abundance, full supply AHD/W7
  plenum n space full of matter AHD/W7
  pleonasm n using more words than necessary AHD/W7
  plerocercoid n solid elongate infective tapeworm larva AHD/W7
  plethora n bodily condition re: excess blood AHD/W7
  plethysmograph n instrument measuring variation in body part size based on blood volume AHD
  plural adj [grammatical form denoting] more than one/two AHD/W7
  plus prep increased by, with addition of AHD/W7
  police n government unit exercising power re: community morals/safety/prosperity AHD/W7
  police n.obs policy AHD/W7
  policlinic n dispensary/department of hospital treating outpatients AHD/W7
  policy n sagacity, wisdom/prudence in managing affairs AHD/W7
  policy n document wherein insurance contract is made AHD/W7
  polis n city-state in ancient Greece AHD
  politic adj political AHD/W7
  political adj re: government W7
  polity n political organization AHD/W7
  poly- pfx multi-, much/many, several AHD/W7
  polydactyl adj having abnormally many digits W9
  polymer n chemical compound of repeating structural units W7
  polypnea n panting, rapid breathing AHD
  polypod adj having many feet AHD
  polytene adj re: large multistranded chromosomes with chromomeres in contact AHD
  poori n light unleavened bread of India/Pakistan AHD
  propolis n brownish resinous material from tree buds AHD/W7
  psalm n sacred song/poem used in praise/worship of deity AHD/W7
  psaltery n ancient stringed instrument resembling zither AHD/W7
  replenish vb to stock, fill with persons/animals AHD/W7
  replete adj fully/abundantly provided AHD/W7
  supplement vb to complete, add to W7
  suppletive adj supplying, suppletory, supplemental AHD/CDC
  supply vb to add as supplement AHD/W7
  surplus n amount remaining when use/need is satisfied AHD/W7
  terreplein n level space behind parapet (to mount weapons) AHD/W7
  Winterfilth prop.n Shire calendar's October in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Scots English: fell adj keen, hot, acute ASD
Old Frisian: fal adj fell, violent ASD
  fel/ful adj.indec much, many; very ASD
  fella/folla/fullia vb to fill ASD
  folk n.neut folk ASD
  ful/fol adj full ASD
Frisian: fol adj full ASD
  folck n folk ASD
  foll/full adj.indec much, many; very ASD
  folljen vb to fill ASD
Dutch: fel adj fell, violent ASD
  politie n police TLL
  veel adj.indec much, many; very ASD
  vleermuis n bat TLL
  vol adj full ASD
  volk n.neut folk ASD
  vullen vb to fill ASD
Old Saxon: filo/filu adj.indec much, many; very ASD
  fletharmūs n bat KSW
  fol/ful adj full ASD
  folc/folk n.neut folk, group ASD
  fullian vb to fill ASD
Low German: full/vull adj full ASD
  vullen vb to fill ASD
Old High German: fīfaltra n butterfly W7
  filo/filu adj.indec much, many; very ASD
  fledarmūs n bat, moth KNW
  folc(h)/folk n.neut folk W7/ASD
  fol(l)/full adj full W7/ASD
  fulljan vb to fill ASD
Middle High German: vālant n devil RPN
  vil adj.indec much, many; very ASD
  vol adj full ASD
  volc n.masc folk ASD
  vüllen vb to fill ASD
German: Falter n moth, butterfly LRC
  Fledermaus n bat TLL
  füllen vb to fill ASD
  Herrenvolk n Herrenvolk, lit. lord folk AHD/W7
  Poliklinik n.fem policlinic W7
  Polizei n police TLL
  viel adj.indec much, many; very ASD
  Volk n.neut folk ASD
  voll adj full ASD
Old Norse: fleiri adj.comp more, further; other LRC
  fólk n.neut folk, men, troop, host of warriors LRC
  fullr adj full, in full swing LRC
Old Icelandic: felms-fullr adj alarmed, frightened RPN
  felmtr n sudden fear, fright RPN
  fīfrildi n butterfly LRC
  fæla vb to scare, frighten RPN
  fæling adj frightening RPN
Icelandic: fjöl- pfx much ASD
  fōlk n.neut folk ASD
  fullr adj full ASD
  fylla vb to fill ASD
Danish: folk n.neut folk ASD
  fuld adj full ASD
  fylde vb to fill ASD
  politi n police TLL
Swedish: fjäril n butterfly SAO
  flädermus n bat TLL
  folk n.neut folk ASD
  full adj full ASD
  fylla vb to fill ASD
  polis n police TLL
Gothic: filu adj great, very much RPN
  filu n.str.neut much, many LRC
  fulljan vb to fill, fulfill RPN
  fullō n fullness RPN
  fulls adj full LRC
  us-filma adj frightened, astonished RPN
  us-filmei n astonishment RPN
Latin: complementum n.neut complement W7
  compleo, complēre vb to complete, fill up W7
  completus vb.ptc completed, filled up W7
  depleo, deplēre vb to fill W7
  depletus vb.ptc filled W7
  expleo, explēre vb to fill out W7
  expletus vb.ptc filled out W7
  impleo, implēre vb to fill up W7
  palpatus vb.ptc palpated, caressed W7
  palpitatus vb.ptc striken W7
  palpito, palpitāre vb to be agitated W7
  palpo, palpāre vb to stroke, caress W7
  palus, palūdis n.fem swamp, marsh W7
  pāpilio, pāpiliōnis n.masc butterfly W7
  plebeius adj re: plebe(s) W7
  plebs, plebis n.fem plebe, masses, common people LRC
  plenitudo n.fem plenitude W7
  plēnus, plēna, plēnum adj plenary RPN
  pleō, plēre vb to fill, fulfill RPN
  plerusque, pleraeque, pleraque adj most, re: majority LRC
  pluralis adj plural, diverse W7
  plurimum adv especially, very much LRC
  plūs, pluris adj.comp more LRC
  politicus adj political W7
  poly- pfx many W7
  psalterium n.neut psaltery W7
  repleo, replēre vb to fill up W7
  repletus vb.ptc filled up W7
  suppleo, supplēre vb to supplement, fill up W7
Vulgar Latin: accompleo, accomplēre vb to accomplish W7
Late Latin: expletivus adj filling out W7
  implementum n.neut action of filling up W7
  metropolis n.fem metropolis, mother-city W7
  necropolis n.fem necropolis, dead-city W7
  palpabilis adj palpable W7
  plēnārius adj entire, plenary W7
  plenipotens, plenipotentis adj plenipotentiary W7
  plenitas, plenitatis n.fem fullness W7
  pleonasmus n.masc pleonasm W7
  politia n.fem government, political organization W7
  psalmus n.masc psalm W7
Medieval Latin: plenipotentia n.fem investment with full power W7
  plenipotentiarius adj.n.masc plenipotentiary W7
  plethora n.fem plethora, multitude W7
  superplus n.masc surplus W7
  terraplenum n.neut median, terreplein W7
New Latin: cosmopolis n.fem cosmopolitan city W7
  palpus n.masc flattery W7
  plenum n.neut space full of matter W7
Portuguese: cheio adj full TLL
Spanish: cumplimiento n.masc compliment W7
  cumplir vb to complete, perform what is due W7
  lleno adj plenary TLL
Old French: acomplir vb to complete, accomplish AHD
  fel adj fell, wicked ASD
  paveillon n.masc pavilion W7
  plein adj full W7
  plenté n.fem plenty, fullness W7
  replenir vb to replenish W7
Middle French: acomplir vb to accomplish W7
  complet adj complete W7
  plénitude n.fem plenitude W7
  plurel adj plural, re: many W7
  police n.fem policy: document, certificate W7
  policie n.fem government, regulation, policy: sagacity W7
  politique n.fem politic W7
  psalterie n.fem psaltery W7
  replenir vb to refill, replenish W7
  replet adj replete W7
  soupleier vb to supplement, fill up W7
  surplus n.masc surplus, overflow W7
  terreplein n.masc median, terreplein W7
French: accomplir vb to complete, accomplish AHD
  clinique n.fem medical office W7
  compliment n.masc compliment W7
  papillon n.masc butterfly W7
  papillote n.fem papillote, candy in colorful twisted paper W7
  plèbe n.fem plebe W7
  plein adj plenary TLL
Old Italian: polizza n.fem policy: document, certificate W7
  terrapieno n.masc terreplein W7
Italian: complimento n.masc compliment W7
  complire vb to comply W7
  fello adj fell, wicked ASD
  pieno adj plenary TLL
  più adv piu W7
Lithuanian: peteliške n.fem butterfly W7
  pilìs n.fem castle LRC
  pìlnas, pilnà adj plenary RPN
Latvian: pils n castle RPN
Old Church Slavonic: plaxъ n dread, fear, fright RPN
  plašiti vb to scare, frighten RPN
  plъnъ adj plenary RPN
Albanian: plot adv quite, fully, completely IEW
  politik adj political LRC
Homeric Greek: πλέων adj.comp more LRC
  πλῆθος n.neut mass, multitude, quantity LRC
  πλήθω vb to be/become full RPN
  πτόλις n city, citadel RPN
Greek: ἀκρόπολις n.fem acropolis, citadel on a hill LRC
  ἐμπίπλημι vb to fill LRC
  kosmopolitēs adj cosmopolitan W7
  mētropolis n.fem metropolis, lit. mother-city W7
  nekropolis n.fem necropolis, lit. city of the dead W7
  πάλλω vb to sway, to shake, to swing RPN
  πελεμίζω vb to shake, make tremble RPN
  πίμπλημι vb to fill LRC
  πλεῖστος adj.sup most LRC
  pleiōn adj.comp more W7
  pleonazein vb to be excessive W7
  pleonasmos n.masc pleonasm W7
  πλέος adj full RPN
  plēthōra n.fem fullness W7
  πλήρης adj full (of) LRC
  πληρόω vb to fill LRC
  πολεμέω vb to fight, be at war LRC
  πολέμιος adj/n.masc hostile, inimical; enemy LRC
  πο̑λεμος n.masc war LRC
  πόλις n.fem polis, city, citadel LRC
  politeia n.fem polity, government, constitution W7
  politeuein vb to be a citizen, engage in political activity W7
  politēs n.masc citizen W7
  πολιτική n.fem politics LRC
  πολιτικῶς adj/adv political; like statesmen LRC
  πολύς adj many LRC
  συμπληρόω vb to fill up LRC
  psallein vb to pluck, play stringed instrument W7
  psalmos n.masc hymn, twanging of a harp W7
  psaltērion n.neut psaltery W7
Armenian: li adj full RPN
Sanskrit: palvala n pond W7
  pí-parti vb to fill, sate, nourish RPN
  purú-ḥ adj much, many, abundant RPN
  pū́r n city; wall, fortress RPN
  pūrṇá-ḥ adj full, filled RPN
  pṛṇā́ti vb to fill RPN
  prāṇa-ḥ adj full, filled RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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