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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2a. pel-, pelə- : plā-   'to drive, propel, set in motion'

Semantic Field: to Drive


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: an-filt/on-filt n anvil ASD
  felt n.masc felt ASD
Middle English: anfilt n anvil W7
  appel n appeal, accusation W7
  appelen vb to appeal, accuse W7
  compellen vb to compel W7
  expellen vb to expel W7
  felt n felt W7
  filtre n filter W7
  peal n peal W7
  pelten vb to pelt W7
  polisshen vb to polish W7
  propellen vb to propel W7
  puls n pulse W7
  pusshen vb to push W7
  repelen vb to repeal W7
  repellen vb to repel W7
English: anvil n heavy iron block where metal is shaped AHD/W7
  appeal vb to accuse, charge with crime AHD/W7
  catapult n device for hurling missiles AHD/W7
  compel vb.trans to constrain, drive/urge with force AHD/W7
  compellation n act of addressing someone AHD/W7
  dispel vb.trans to dissipate, drive away by scattering AHD/W7
  expel vb.trans to force out AHD/W7
  felt n thick cloth made of wool/fur via heat/moisture/pressure AHD/W7
  filter n porous substance through which gas/liquid is passed to extract matter in suspension AHD/W7
  filtrate vb to filter AHD/W7
  impel vb.trans to force, urge/drive on/forward via moral pressure AHD/W7
  impulse n impulsion, act of moving with sudden force AHD/W7
  interpolate vb to alter/corrupt (text) by inserting new/foreign content AHD/W7
  peal n loud ringing of bell(s) AHD/W7
  pelt vb to strike with succession of blows/missiles AHD/W7
  plesiosaur n Mesozoic marine reptile AHD/W7
  polish vb to burnish, make smooth/glossy (by friction) AHD/W7
  poussette n country-dance figure with joined hands AHD
  propel vb.trans to drive forward/onward AHD/W7
  pulsate vb.intrans to beat, exhibit pulse AHD/W7
  pulse n regular throbbing in arteries caused by heart.contractions AHD/W7
  push vb to press against in order to drive/impel AHD/W7
  rappel n descent of cliff using rope AHD/W7
  repeal vb.trans to annul/rescind by authoritative act AHD/W7
  repel vb to repulse, drive back AHD/W7
Dutch: aanbeeld/aenbeld n.neut anvil ASD
  pols n wrist TLL
  vilt n.neut felt ASD
Low German: ambolt/ambult n.masc anvil ASD
  filt n.masc felt ASD
Old High German: anafalz n anvil W7
  filz n.masc felt ASD
Middle High German: vilz n.masc felt ASD
German: Amboss n.masc anvil LRC
  Filz n.masc/neut felt, carded wool ASD
Danish: bugsera vb to tow, haul SAO
  bugserbaad n tugboat TLL
  filt n.masc/fem felt ASD
Swedish: bogsera vb to tow, haul SAO
  bogserbåt n tugboat TLL
  filt n.masc felt ASD
  filta vb to beat W7
Latin: appellō, appellāre, appellāvī, appellātum vb to call, accost, appeal to LRC
  appello, appellere vb to bring/drive to W7
  catapulta n.fem catapult W7
  compellatio n.fem action of rebuking, reprimanding W7
  compellatus vb.ptc rebuked, addressed W7
  compello, compellere vb to drive, oblige, address W7
  dispello, dispellere vb to drive in different directions W7
  expellō, expellere, expulī, expulsum vb to drive out LRC
  impellō, impellere, impulī, impulsum vb to drive, move LRC
  impulsus n.masc impulsion W7
  impulsus vb.ptc impelled W7
  interpolatus vb.ptc interpolated W7
  interpolo, interpolare vb to alter, refurbish, interpolate W7
  pello, pellere vb to beat, push, chase/drive out/away W7
  polio, polīre vb to level, polish W7
  propello, propellere vb to drive forward/away W7
  prōpulsō, prōpulsāre, prōpulsāvī, prōpulsātum vb to repulse, ward off LRC
  pulsatus vb.ptc striken W7
  pulsō, pulsāre vb to beat, hit, strike W7
  pulsus n.masc beating W7
  pulsus vb.ptc beaten, striken W7
  repello, repellere vb to drive away W7
Medieval Latin: filtō, filtāre vb to filter W7
  filtratus vb.ptc filtrated W7
  filtrum n.neut (felt used as) filter W7
Portuguese: puxar vb to pull SAO
Old French: apeler vb to appeal, call to W7
  polir vb to polish W7
  poulser vb to beat, push W7
  rapel n.masc a recall W7
  rapeler vb to recall W7
  repeler vb to repeal W7
Middle French: apeler vb to appeal, call to W7
  catapulte n.fem catapult W7
  compellir vb to drive, oblige W7
  pouls n.masc pulse W7
  repeler vb to repeal W7
French: rappel n.masc encore W7
Homeric Greek: πάλλω vb to hurl, swing, brandish LRC
  πέλας prep/adv near(by) LRC
  πλήν prep except LRC
  πλησίος adj near, close LRC
Greek: katapaltēs n.masc catapult W7
  παραπλήσιος adj such-like LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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