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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3b. pel-, pelə-, plē-   'to wrap, cover; cloth; fell, pelt'

Semantic Fields: to Wind, Wrap; to Cover; Cloth; Skin, Hide


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: peall n.masc couch, covering W7
  pillion n.fem couch, covering W7
  pillīn n.fem pack-saddle W7/IED
Scots Gaelic: peall n.masc couch, covering W7
  pillean/pillion n.masc cushion W7/GE
Old English: fēlan/fiolan vb.str.III to stick, adhere; reach, penetrate ASD
  fel(l) n.neut fell, fur RPN
  fēolan, fealh, fulgon, folen vb.str.III to stick, adhere; reach, penetrate LRC
  film(en)/fylmen n.neut film RPN
Middle English: erisipila n erysipelas W7
  fell n fell W7
  filme n film W7
  pelt n pelt W7
  peltry n peltry W7
  surplis n surplice W7
English: erysipelas n acute febrile disease caused by hemolytic streptococcus AHD/W7
  fell n hide, skin, pelt AHD/W7
  film n pellicle, thin skin/membranous covering AHD/W7
  Hasufel prop.n Aragorn's horse in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  microfilm n photographic record of reduced-size image(s) W7
  pelisse n long coat/cloak made/lined/trimmed with fur AHD/W7
  pellicle n thin skin/film AHD/W7
  pelt n (animal) skin/hide with hair/wool/fur AHD/W7
  peltate adj shield-shaped AHD/W7
  peltry n furs, pelts AHD/W7
  pillion n light saddle for women AHD/W7
  surplice n loose white knee-length outer vestment worn by clergymen AHD/W7
Old Frisian: bi-fella vb to conceal, commit RPN
  fel n.neut fell ASD
Dutch: pels n pelt, fur TLL
  vel n.neut fell ASD
Old Saxon: fel n.neut fell ASD
Old High German: fel n.neut fell RPN
Middle High German: vël n.neut fell ASD
German: Fell n.neut fell ASD
  Pelz n pelt, fur TLL
Old Norse: fela vb to hide; commend, make over LRC
Old Icelandic: fjall n.neut fell RPN
  fylgsni n hiding-place RPN
Icelandic: fell n.neut fell ASD
Danish: pels n pelt, fur TLL
Swedish: päls n pelt, fur TLL
Gothic: filhan vb to bury, conceal RPN
  fill n.neut fell ASD
Latin: palla n garment worn by women of Rome RPN
  pallium n cover, covering RPN
  pallula n small cloak/mantle RPN
  pellicius adj made of pelt(s) W7
  pellicula n.fem small fell/pelt W7
  pellis, pellis n.fem fell/pelt LRC
  pelta n.fem small shield (made of hide) W7
Late Latin: pellicia n.fem pelisse W7
  pellicius adj made of skin W7
Medieval Latin: pellicium n.neut coat of skins W7
  pellicula n.fem pellicle W7
  superpellicium n.neut surplice W7
New Latin: peltatus vb.ptc armed with shield W7
Old French: surpliz n.masc surplice W7
Anglo-French: pelterie n.fem fell, fur W7
Middle French: pellicule n.fem pellicle, film W7
French: pelisse n.fem type of fur coat W7
Old Prussian: pelkis n cloak RPN
Lithuanian: plėvė̃ n membrane RPN
Russian: pleva n membrane RPN
Greek: erysipelas adj red skinned W7
  -pelas afx fell W7
  πέλλα n.fem fell, leather ASD
  πελλοράφος n sewing skins together RPN
  πέλμα n sole (of foot/shoe) RPN
  pelma n.neut sole of the foot W7
  peltē n.fem small shield (made of hide) W7
  ῥάπτω vb to sew together RPN
Sanskrit: paṭa-ḥ n cloth, garment, blanket RPN
  paṭála-m n veil, cover RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GE=Colin Mark: The Gaelic-English Dictionary (2003)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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