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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 6. pel-   'gray, dull color; pallor'

Semantic Fields: White; Light in Color


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fealg n piece of plowed land W7
  fealo/fealu adj fallow, tawny, pale (yellow) IEW/ASD
  fealu n.neut fallow ground ASD
Middle English: appallen vb to become pale W7
  falcon n falcon W7
  falow adj fallow W7
  falwe n fallow W7
  gerfaucun n gyrfalcon, arctic falcon W7
  pale adj pale W7
  palen vb to pale W7
English: appall vb to fail, weaken AHD/W7
  falcon n (trained) hawk: bird predator AHD/W7
  Fallohide prop.n hobbit clan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  fallow adj dusky, light yellowish brown AHD/W7
  fallow n plowed land AHD/W7
  fauvism n art characterized by free form/vivid color AHD/W7
  gyrfalcon n large arctic falcon AHD/W7
  pale adj pallid, deficient in color AHD/W7
  pale vb to make/become pale/pallid AHD/W7
  pallid adj wan, deficient in color AHD/W7
  pallor n paleness, deficiency in color AHD/W7
  palomino n pale-colored horse AHD/W7
  pelargonium n southern African herb in geranium family AHD/W7
  polio n poliomyelitis LRC
  poliomyelitis n acute infectious viral disease involving muscular atrophy/paralysis AHD/W7
Old High German: falcho n falcon W7
  falo adj pale, fallow W7
German: Falke n.masc falcon LRC
Latin: palleo, pallēre vb to be pale W7
  pallesco, pallescere vb to become pale W7
  pallidus adj pale W7
  pallor n.masc paleness W7
  palumbes n.masc ringdove W7
  palumbinus adj of doves W7
Late Latin: falco, falconis n falcon W7
New Latin: pelargonium n.neut plant(s) in geranium family W7
  poliomyelitis n.fem polio W7
Portuguese: falcão n falcon TLL
Spanish: halcón n falcon TLL
  palomino n.masc chick, dove offspring W7
Old French: apalir vb to grow pale W7
Middle French: apalir vb to grow pale W7
  girfaucon n.masc gyrfalcon W7
  pâle adj pale W7
French: faucon n.masc falcon W7
  fauve n.masc wild animal W7
  fauvisme n.masc fauvism (art movement) W7
  pâlir vb to grow pale W7
Italian: falcone n falcon TLL
Greek: pelargos n.masc stork W7
  peleia n.fem dove W7
  polios adj gray W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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