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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2b. per-, perə-   'to fare, ferry, transport, go/carry over'

Semantic Fields: to Bear, Carry; to Overtake


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fær n way, passage, journey RPN
  fara n.masc farer, traveller ASD
  faran, fōr, fōron, faren vb.str.VI to go, ride, travel LRC
  faru n.fem way, journey W7/ASD
  fe(a)rn n.neut fern, feathery leaf RPN/ASD
  feldeware/*feldefare n fieldfare, lit. field-farer W7
  fēran, fērde, fēred vb.wk.I to go, travel LRC
  ferian/ferig(e)an/fergan vb.wk to ferry, lead RPN/ASD
  fōr n.fem course, voyage, movement RPN/ASD
  ford n.masc ford RPN/ASD
  gefēra n.masc fere W7/ASD
  per n pier W7
  petersili(g)e n.fem parsley W7/ASD
Middle English: disporten vb to sport W7
  fare n journey, passage, activity W7
  faren vb to fare W7
  feldefare n fieldfare, lit. field-farer W7
  fere n fere W7
  ferien vb to ferry W7
  fern n fern W7
  firth n firth W7
  ford n ford W7
  importen vb to import W7
  importune adj importune W7
  opportune adj opportune W7
  per n pier W7
  persely n parsley W7
  porche n porch W7
  pore n pore W7
  portable adj portable W7
  portage n portage W7
  portal n portal W7
  portatif adj portative W7
  port(e) n port W7
  porter n porter W7
  portour n porter W7
  purport n purport W7
  purslane n purslane W7
  report n report W7
  salpeter n saltpeter W7
  sporten vb to divert, disport W7
  supporten vb to support W7
  transporten vb to transport W7
  warfare n warfare W7
  warre n war W7
  welfare n welfare W7
  werre n warfare W7
English: aporia n doubt, puzzlement, uncertainty AHD
  Budgeford prop.n hobbit town in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  comport vb to suit, accord AHD/W7
  deport vb.trans to behave, conduct (oneself) AHD/W7
  diapir n intrusion of rock core into overburden AHD
  emporium n place of trade AHD/W7
  export vb to remove, carry away AHD/W7
  fare n price charged for transport AHD/W7
  fare vb.intrans to go, move, travel AHD/W7
  fartlek n conditioning via alternate levels of effort AHD
  fere n comrade, companion AHD/W7
  fern n seedless flowerless lower vascular plant AHD/W7
  ferry vb to carry/convey (esp. by boat) AHD/W7
  fieldfare n medium-sized Eurasian thrush AHD/W7
  firth n estuary AHD/W7
  fjord n narrow inlet of sea between cliffs/steep slopes AHD/W7
  ford n shallow part of water crossable by wading AHD/W7
  fuhrer n leader AHD/W7
  Herefara prop.n Rohan rider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  import vb to signify, bear/convey as meaning/portent AHD/W7
  important adj significant, marked by importance AHD/W7
  importune adj troublesome AHD/W7
  opportune adj suitable/convenient AHD/W7
  pan n betel leaf AHD/W7
  parsley n southern European annual/biennial herb AHD/W7
  passport n formal travel document issued by nation AHD/W7
  peroneal adj re: fibula AHD/W7
  petro- pfx rock, stone AHD
  petroleum n oily flammable bituminous liquid W7
  petrous adj hard, rocky, resembling stone AHD/W7
  pier n intermediate support for (bridge) span AHD/W7
  porch n veranda, covered building entrance AHD/W7
  pore n minute opening in plant/animal AHD/W7
  poromeric n tough porous leather substitute AHD
  port n haven, place of safety from storms AHD/W7
  port n gate AHD/W7
  port n bearing, deportment AHD/W7
  port vb to carry, convey W7
  portable adj able to be carried AHD/W7
  portage n labor of carrying/transporting AHD/W7
  portal adj re: entry point AHD/W7
  portal n door, entrance, entry point AHD/W7
  portamento n continuous glide from one musical tone to another AHD/W7
  portative adj portable AHD/W7
  portcullis n gateway grating of iron/wood bars/slats AHD
  porter n one who carries burdens AHD/W7
  porter n person stationed at door/gate to admit/assist entry AHD/W7
  portico n colonnade/covered ambulatory at building entrance AHD/W7
  portiere n curtain hanging across doorway AHD/W7
  portulaca n tropical herb in purslane family AHD/W7
  purport n import, meaning implied/conveyed/professed AHD/W7
  purslane n succulent herb with perfect regular flowers AHD/W7
  rapport n relation(ship) AHD/W7
  report n rumor, common talk/account AHD/W7
  saltpeter n potassium nitrate AHD/W7
  sport vb to show off, make ostentatious display AHD/W7
  support vb.trans to bear, endure bravely/quietly AHD/W7
  transport vb.trans to carry, convey from place to place AHD/W7
  warfare n war, hostilities, military operations between enemies AHD/W7
  wayfarer n traveler AHD
  wayfaring adj traveling AHD
  welfare n state of doing well w.r.t. fortune/happiness/well-being/prosperity AHD/W7
  Wídfara prop.n Rohan rider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
British English: petrol n gasoline W7
Scots English: firth/frith n bay ASD
Old Frisian: fara vb to go, travel ASD
  fare/fera/fer(e) n.fem way, journey ASD
  fera vb to lead, ferry ASD
  forda n ford ASD
Frisian: ferren vb to go, travel ASD
  fieren vb to lead, ferry ASD
Dutch: petersilie n parsley TLL
  vāren n.neut fern ASD
  vāren vb to go, travel ASD
  voer n.neut way, journey ASD
  voord n ford ASD
Old Saxon: faran vb to go, travel ASD
  fōrian vb to lead, ferry ASD
Low German: f̈ren vb to lead, ferry ASD
Old High German: far n.neut way, journey ASD
  faran vb to go W7
  farn/farm n.neut fern W7/ASD
  ferien/ferren vb to lead, ferry across RPN
  fuora n.fem way, journey RPN/ASD
  fuoren vb to lead, convey RPN
  fuorjan/fōrjan vb to lead, ferry ASD
  furt n.neut ford ASD
  petarsile n parsley ASD
Middle High German: var n.fem way, journey ASD
  varn/varm n.masc fern ASD
  varn vb to go, travel ASD
  vüeren vb to lead, bear W7
  vüerer n bearer W7
  vurt n.masc ford ASD
German: Fa(h)r n.fem way, journey ASD
  fa(h)ren vb to go, travel ASD
  Far(re)n n.masc fern ASD
  Fuhre n.fem way, journey ASD
  führen vb to lead, ferry ASD
  Führer n.masc guide, lit. leader W7
  Furt n.fem ford ASD
  Petersilie n parsley ASD
  Petroleum n kerosene TLL
Old Norse: fara vb to fare, happen, turn out LRC
  fjö(r)ðr n fjord W7
  fǫr n.fem journey, expedition LRC
Old Icelandic: farmr n freight, load, cargo RPN
  ferja vb to ferry over a river or strait RPN
Icelandic: fara vb to go, travel ASD
  ferja vb to transport, ferry by sea ASD
  fjörðr n.masc ford ASD
  för n.fem way, journey ASD
Norwegian: fjord n fjord W7
Danish: fare vb to go, travel ASD
  fjord n.masc/fem bay, gulf ASD
  före n.neut way, journey ASD
   vb to lead, ferry ASD
  persille n parsley TLL
Swedish: fara vb to go, travel ASD
  fjärd n.masc bay ASD
  fora n.fem way, journey ASD
  föra vb to lead, ferry ASD
  persilja n parsley TLL
Gothic: faran vb to wander, travel RPN
  farjan vb to travel RPN
Latin: apporto, apportare vb to carry, bring to W7
  comporto, comportare vb to comport, bring together W7
  deporto, deportare vb to deport, carry away W7
  emporium n.neut emporium, trading post W7
  exporto, exportāre vb to export W7
  importans, importantis adj/vb.ptc foreign, imported W7
  importō, importāre vb to import, bring in W7
  importunus adj bothering, not fitting W7
  opportunus adj fitting W7
  petra n.fem rock, stone W7
  petroselinum n.neut parsley W7
  porcillaca n.fem female pig W7
  porta n.fem port, gate, passage W7
  portatus vb.ptc carried W7
  porticus n.masc porch, portico W7
  portō, portāre vb to port RPN
  portula n.fem small door W7
  portulaca n.fem purslane W7
  portus n.masc port, haven, harbor RPN
  porus n.masc pore, passage W7
  properō, properāre vb to hasten RPN
  reporto, reportāre vb to transmit, carry back W7
  supporto, supportāre vb to support, carry W7
  transporto, transportāre vb to transport W7
Vulgar Latin: petrosilium n.neut parsley W7
Late Latin: porcillago n.fem an herb W7
  portabilis adj portable W7
  portarius n.masc porter, door guardian W7
  portator n.masc carrier W7
  supporto, supportāre vb to support W7
Medieval Latin: pera n.fem pier W7
  portale n.masc portal, city gate; porch W7
  portalis adj re: gate W7
New Latin: peroneus n.masc near/related to fibula W7
  porta n.fem transverse liver fissure W7
  portulaca n.fem genus of tropical herbs W7
Portuguese: pedra n rock, stone TLL
Spanish: piedra n rock, stone TLL
Old French: aporter vb to bring W7
  porche n.masc porch, portico W7
  porporter vb to convey W7
  port n.fem port, harbor W7
  porter vb to port W7
  portier n.masc porter, doorkeeper W7
  portière n.fem door W7
  raporter vb to bring back W7
  report n.masc report W7
  reporter vb to report W7
Anglo-French: purport n.masc purport, tenor W7
  purporter vb to contain W7
Middle French: comporter vb to bear, conduct W7
  deporter vb to deport W7
  important adj important W7
  importun adj bothering, not fitting W7
  opportun adj opportune W7
  passeport n.masc passport W7
  passer vb to pass W7
  petreux adj stony W7
  porcelaine n.fem porcelain W7
  pore n.fem pore, passage W7
  port n.masc action of carrying W7
  portable adj portable W7
  portage adj portage W7
  portal n.masc portal, city gate; porch W7
  portatif adj portative, portable W7
  porte n.fem port, gate, door W7
  porteour n.masc carrier W7
  porter vb to port W7
  salpêtre n.masc saltpeter W7
  supporter vb to support W7
  transporter vb to transport W7
French: pierre n rock, stone TLL
  portière n.fem small door W7
  rapport n.masc report; link, connection W7
  rapporter vb to return, bring back W7
Old Italian: importante adj important W7
Italian: pietra n rock, stone TLL
  portamento n.masc gait, bearing W7
  portare vb to port W7
  pòrtico n.masc portico, porch, arcade W7
Polish: pierzchnać vb to flee RPN
Czech: prchnouti vb to flee RPN
Serbo-Croatian: prhati vb to fly up RPN
Russian Church Slavic: pero n feather RPN
  perǫ, pъrati vb to fly RPN
Russian: porxát' vb to flutter, fly about RPN
Homeric Greek: πέτρη n rock, cliff; reef LRC
  πόρος n.masc ford, passageway; journey LRC
Greek: ἀπορία n.fem impasse, aporia LS
  emporion n.neut trading post W7
  emporos n.masc trader, traveler W7
  περάω vb to pass over/through RPN
  peronē n.fem pin W7
  petros n.masc rock, stone W7
  petroselinon n.neut parsley W7
  πορεύω vb to go, make go LRC
  πορίζω vb to cause, carry, supply RPN
Hittite: pár-aš-zi to flee RPN
Avestan: -pārayeite vb.caus to convey across RPN
Sanskrit: parṇá-m n wing, feather RPN
  parna n.neut wing, leaf W7/ASD
  pāráyati vb.caus to bring over/out RPN
  píparti vb to bring/come over RPN
Hindi: pān n betel leaf W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
I=class 1
VI=class 6
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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