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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2c. per-, perə-   'to sell, impart'

Semantic Field: to Sell


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: rann n part RPN
Old English: part n.masc part ASD
Middle English: appreisen/apraysen vb to appraise W7/CDC
  aprisen/apraysen vb.trans to apprize CDC
  comparen vb to compare W7
  interpreten vb to interpret W7
  paire n pair W7
  parcel n parcel W7
  part n part W7
  parten vb to part W7
  particle n particle W7
  partie n part, party W7
  peer n peer W7
  portion n portion W7
  praisen vb to praise W7
  precious adj precious W7
  pris n prize, price W7
  proporcion n proportion W7
English: appraise vb.trans to set value on, estimate amount of AHD/W7
  appreciate vb to evaluate worth/quality/significance of AHD/W7
  apprize vb to value, appreciate W7
  bipartite adj being in two parts AHD/W7
  compare vb to liken, represent as similar AHD/W7
  compart vb.trans to mark/divide out into parts AHD/W7
  depreciate vb to lower price/estimated value of AHD/W7
  imparity n disparity, inequality AHD/W7
  impart vb.trans to transmit, give/grant from one's store/abundance AHD/W7
  interpret vb to elucidate, explain meaning of AHD/W7
  nonpareil adj having no equal AHD/W7
  nonpareil n paragon, individual of unequalled excellence AHD/W7
  pair n two things (designed) for dual use AHD/W7
  par n comparative values of currencies AHD/W7
  parcel n portion, fragment AHD/W7
  parcener n coparcener: joint heir AHD/W7
  pari-mutuel n race betting where winners divide total amount bet AHD
  parse vb to describe sentence grammatically AHD
  part n portion resulting from division AHD/W7
  part vb to separate from, take leave of AHD/W7
  particle n clause/article of document/composition AHD/W7
  partisan n supporter, one who takes part of another AHD/W7
  partisan n weapon with long shaft/broad blade AHD/W7
  partita n repetition with modification AHD/W7
  party n group/person taking one side of question/dispute/contest AHD/W7
  peer n equal, one with equal standing AHD/W7
  pornography n depiction of erotic behavior AHD/W7
  portion n individual's part/share of something AHD/W7
  praise vb to commend, express favorable judgment of AHD/W7
  Precious prop.n the One Ring in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  precious adj of high price/great value AHD/W7
  price n worth, value AHD/W7
  proportion n ratio, relation of part to part/whole w.r.t. degree/quantity/magnitude AHD/W7
  repartee n quick/witty reply AHD/W7
British English: apprise vb to apprize LRC
German: Preis n.masc price LRC
Latin: bipartio, bipartīre vb to divide in two W7
  compar adj like W7
  comparo, comparāre vb to couple, compare W7
  impār adj odd, uneven, unequal W7
  impartio, impartire vb to share W7
  interpres, interpretis n.masc/fem agent, interpreter, negotiator W7
  interpretor, interpretari vb.dep to be agent/interpreter/negotiator W7
  pār adj even, equal RPN
  paria equal things W7
  parō, parāre, parāvī, parātum vb to prepare, obtain LRC
  pars, partis n.fem part, share, portion RPN
  particula n.fem.dim small part W7
  partio, partīre vb to divide W7
  partior, partiri vb.dep to share W7
  portiō, portiōnis n.fem part, portion, division RPN
  pretiosus adj precious W7
  pretium n.neut price, money, value W7
  prōportiō, prōportiōnis n.fem analogy W7
Vulgar Latin: pariculus adj equal W7
  particella n.fem small part W7
Late Latin: appretiare vb.trans to appraise, purchase CDC
  appretiatus vb.ptc appraised W7
  appretio, appretiāre vb to fix a price W7
  compartior, compartiri vb.dep to share out W7
  depretiatus vb.ptc depreciated W7
  depretio, depretiāre vb to depreciate W7
  imparitas n.fem imparity W7
  pretio, pretiāre vb to prize, value, esteem W7
Portuguese: apreçar vb to appraise CDC
Spanish: apreciar vb to appraise CDC
Old French: apretier/aprisier vb.trans to price, appraise CDC
  apris(i)er/apretier vb.trans to apprize CDC
  paire n.fem pair W7
  parçon n.fem portion W7
  parçonier adj.n.masc comrade, associate W7
  partie n.fem division W7
  partir vb to depart, divide W7
  portion n.fem portion W7
  precios adj precious W7
  pris n.masc price W7
Anglo-French: parcener vb to partition W7
Middle French: aprisier vb to apprize W7
  comparer vb to compare W7
  impart n.masc lot given W7
  impartir vb to impart W7
  interpreter vb to interpret W7
  nonpareil adj unequal W7
  parcel n.masc small part W7
  pareil adj equal W7
  partir vb to divide W7
  partisan n.masc partisan, fan W7
  partisane n.fem female partisan W7
  preisier vb to prize, praise W7
  proportion n.fem proportion W7
  repartir vb to go again W7
French: apprécier vb to appraise CDC
  nonpareil adj sensational, unequalled W7
  répartie n.fem quick/witty answer W7
  répartir vb to retort W7
Old Occitan: apreciar vb to appraise CDC
Old Italian: parte n.fem part, party W7
  partigiana n.fem weapon of 16th-17th centuries W7
  partigiano n.masc weapon of 16th-17th centuries W7
Italian: appregiare/apprezare vb to appraise CDC
  compartire vb to divide W7
  partire vb to divide W7
  partita n.fem partita; game, match W7
Lithuanian: pir̃kti, per̃ka, pir̃ko vb to buy LRC
Greek: περάω vb to sell abroad RPN
  pernanai vb to sell W7
  πορεῖν vb to offer, present, furnish RPN
  pornē n.fem harlot W7
  pornographos n.masc writing of harlots W7
Hittite: pár-ši-ya-az-zi to break, divide RPN
Sanskrit: pūrtá-m n gift, reward RPN
  prati- pfx near, towards, against, in return W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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