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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. perk̑-, pr̥k̑-   'to open, dig out, rip up; furrow'

Semantic Fields: to Open; to Dig, Delve; Furrow (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: furh n.fem furrow ASD
  furlang/furlung n.neut furlong ASD
Middle English: forow/for(o)we/furwe n furrow W7/CDC
  furgh/forgh/furch n furrow W7/CDC
  furlong/forlong n furlong W7/CDC
English: Bamfurlong prop.n farm name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  furlong n unit of distance, lit. forrow-long AHD/W7
  furrow n trench in earth made by plow AHD/W7
Old Frisian: furch n.fem furrow ASD
Frisian: furch/furge n furrow ASD
Old Dutch: vore n furrow CDC
Dutch: vōr(e) n.fem furrow CDC/ASD
Middle Low German: vore n furrow CDC
Low German: fore/fare n.fem furrow ASD
Old High German: fur(u)h n.fem furrow ASD
Middle High German: vurch n.fem furrow ASD
German: Furche n.fem furrow ASD
Icelandic: for n drain CDC
  furask adj (to be) furrowed ASD
Danish: fure n.masc/fem furrow ASD
Swedish: fåra n.fem furrow ASD
Latin: porca n.fem balk, ridge between furrows CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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