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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. peu-, peu̯ə- : pū̆-   'to sift, clean, purge, purify'

Semantic Field: Pure, Clean

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Middle Irish: ūr adj fresh, green W7
English  
Middle English: pouren vb to pour W7
  pur adj pure, untainted W7
  purgen vb to purge W7
  spurge n spurge W7
English: compurgation n clearing of accused by oaths re: innocence/veracity AHD/W7
  depurate vb to cleanse, purify, clarify AHD/CDC
  expurgate vb.trans to cleanse of moral harm/error/offense AHD/W7
  pour vb to cause to flow/stream AHD/W7
  pure adj unmixed with other matter AHD/W7
  puree n paste/thick liquid suspension, sieved cooked food AHD/W7
  purge vb to clear of moral/ceremonial defilement AHD/W7
  spurge n usu. shrubby plant AHD/W7
Italic  
Latin: compurgatus vb.ptc completely cleared up W7
  compūrgō, compūrgāre vb to clear completely W7
  expurgatus vb.ptc purged, cleaned out W7
  expūrgō, expūrgāre vb to clean out W7
  pūrgō, pūrgāre vb to purge, purify W7
  puro, purāre vb to purify W7
  purus, pura, purum adj pure LRC
  putō, putāre vb to clear, cleanse W7
Late Latin: compurgatio n.fem complete clearance W7
Spanish: púro adj pure TLL
Old French: pur adj pure W7
  purgier vb to purge, purify W7
Middle French: espurgier vb to purge W7
  puré vb.ptc purified W7
  purer vb to purify, strain W7
  spurge n.fem spurge W7
Indic  
Sanskrit: punāti vb to cleanse W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
n=noun
ptc=participle
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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