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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: pēu- : pəu- : pū̆-   'to hit; sharp'

Semantic Fields: to Hit, Strike, Beat; Sharp


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: pytt n.masc pit, grave W7/ASD
Middle English: impudent adj impudent W7
  paven vb to pave W7
  pit n pit W7
English: amputate vb.trans to prune, cut/lop off AHD/W7
  anapest n metrical foot: two short/unstressed syllables followed by long/stressed syllable AHD/W7
  impudent adj lacking modesty AHD/W7
  pave vb.trans to lay/cover with stone/concrete/other material making firm level path/roadway AHD/W7
  pavid adj timid AHD/W7
  pit n hole/shaft/cavity in ground AHD/W7
  pudency n modesty, prudishness AHD/W7
  pudendum n external genital organ of human (esp. woman) AHD/W7
  putamen n hard shell-like covering AHD
  repudiate vb.trans to divorce/separate formally from AHD/W7
Old High German: arfūrian vb to castrate W7
  pfuzzi/pfuzza n pit, well, cistern W7/ASD
German: Pfütze n.fem pit, pool, puddle ASD
Icelandic: pyttr n pit ASD
Latin: amputatus vb.ptc amputated W7
  amputo, amputāre vb to amputate W7
  anapaestus adj of anapests W7
  dēputo, dēputare vb to prune, cut off W7
  impudens adj unashamed W7
  paveo, pavēre vb.intrans to panic, quake (with fear) W7
  pavidus, pavida, pavidum adj fearful, quaking, trembling W7
  pavio, pavire vb to beat, strike, pave W7
  pavor, pavōris n.masc fear, dread, quaking LRC
  pudendum n.neut part to be ashamed of W7
  pudendus ger to be ashamed of W7
  pudens, pudentis adj/vb.ptc ashamed, disgraced W7
  pudentia n.fem pudency W7
  pudeo, pudēre vb to be ashamed, cause/fill with shame W7
  pudor, pudōris n.masc shame, modesty; honor, decency LRC
  putatus vb.ptc pruned W7
  puto, putare vb to prune, cut off W7
  repudiatus vb.ptc divorced, sent back W7
  repudio, repudiāre vb to divorce, send back W7
  repudium n.neut divorce W7
Late Latin: dēputo, dēputare vb to assign W7
New Latin: pudendum n.neut part to be hidden, sex organ W7
Middle French: paver vb to pave W7
Greek: anapaiein vb to strike back W7
  anapaistos adj struck back W7
  paiein vb to strike W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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