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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: peu̯ōr, pū̆r, genitive pu-n-és, locative puu̯éni   'fire'

Semantic Field: Fire (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fȳr/fīr n.neut fire, hearth RPN/ASD
Middle English: fire n fire W7
English: empyreal adj celestial, re: highest heaven AHD/W7
  fire n combustion manifested as heat/light/flame AHD/W7
  Firefoot prop.n Eomer's horse in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Fire-mountain prop.n Orodruin, a.k.a. Mount Doom in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  pyre n combustible heap for burning body as funeral rite AHD/W7
  pyretic adj febrile, re: fever AHD/W7
  pyrite n iron sulfide: gold/brass-colored mineral AHD/W7
  pyrites n metallic sulfide mineral AHD
  pyro- pfx fire, heat AHD
  pyrosis n heartburn AHD/W7
  pyrrhotite n ferrous sulfide: bronze-colored mineral AHD/W7
Scots English: fyre n fire ASD
Old Frisian: fior/fiur n.neut fire ASD
Frisian: fjœr n fire ASD
Dutch: vuur n.neut fire ASD
Old Saxon: fiur n.neut fire ASD
Low German: füer/vü(e)r n.neut fire ASD
Old High German: fiur n.neut fire RPN/ASD
Middle High German: viu(we)r/viwer n.neut fire ASD
German: Feuer n.neut fire ASD
  Pyrrhotin n pyrrhotite W7
Old Icelandic: fúrr n.masc fire RPN/ASD
Danish: fyr n.masc/fem fire ASD
Swedish: fyr n.masc fire, beacon, lighthouse ASD
Gothic: fōn, funins n fire RPN
Umbrian: pir n fire RPN
Latin: pyra n.fem pyre W7
Late Latin: empyreus/empyrius adj empyreal W7
New Latin: pyrosis n.fem heartburn W7
Old Prussian: panno n fire RPN
Old Czech: púř n embers, glowing ashes RPN
Homeric Greek: πῦρ n.neut fire LRC
Greek: pyra n.fem pyre W7
  pyretikos adj re: fever W7
  pyretos n.masc fever W7
  πυρίη n.fem vapor bath LRC
  pyritēs adj re: fire W7
  pyroun vb to burn W7
  pyrrhos adj red W7
  pyrrhotēs n.fem redness W7
  pyrōsis n.fem burning W7
Late Greek: empyrios adj empyreal, re: fire within W7
Luwian: pa-a-h̯u-u-ur n fire RPN
Hittite: pa-ah̯-h̯u-e-na-aš of fire RPN
  pa-ah̯-h̯ur n fire RPN
  pa-ah̯-h̯u-ur n fire RPN
  pa-ah̯-h̯u-wa-ar n fire RPN
Armenian: hur n fire RPN
Tocharian B: puwar n fire RPN
Tocharian A: por n fire RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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