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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. plā-k- : plə-k-, ple-k- : plō̆-k-, plei-k-, and pelə-g- : plā-g- : plə-g-   'flat, wide, broad; spread out'

Semantic Fields: Flat; Wide, Broad; to Strew, Spread Out


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: flēan vb.str to flay W7/ASD
  flōc n.neut fluke W7
  flōh n.fem (flat) piece of stone W7
Middle English: flagge n reed, rush W7
  flake n flake W7
  flaw n flaw W7
  fluke n fluke W7
  placebo n placebo W7
  plai(d) n plea W7
  plaiden vb to plead, institute lawsuit W7
  plank n plank W7
  plesaunt adj pleasant W7
  plesen vb to please W7
  souple adj supple W7
  supplicaten vb to supplicate W7
English: Archipelago prop.n Aegean Sea AHD/W7
  archipelago n sea/expanse of water with scattered islands AHD/W7
  complacent adj satisfied AHD/W7
  flag n hard evenly stratified stone AHD/W7
  flake n thin piece, small part AHD/W7
  flake n tray/platform for drying foodstuffs AHD/W7
  flaw n fault, defect, fragment AHD/W7
  floe n large floating ice sheet AHD/W7
  fluke n sole, flatfish AHD/W7
  implacable adj not placable LRC
  pelagic adj oceanic, re: open sea AHD/W7
  placable adj tolerant, easily calmed/pacified AHD
  placate vb.trans to soothe, appease, mollify AHD/W7
  placebo n vespers for dead in Roman Catholic Church AHD/W7
  placenta n vascular organ uniting fetus to mammalian uterus AHD/W7
  placid adj peaceful, undisturbed AHD/W7
  placoderm n (extinct) fish with bony armor plates AHD
  placoid adj re: elasmobranch scale with enamel-tipped spine AHD/W7
  plagal adj having keynote on 4th scale step AHD/W7
  plagiary n plagiarist AHD/W7
  planchet n coin blank: flat metal disk AHD
  plank n thick heavy board AHD/W7
  playa n flat bottom of undrained desert basin AHD/W7
  plea n legal suit/action AHD/W7
  plead, pled vb to argue case/cause in law court AHD/W7
  pleasant adj agreeable, giving pleasure AHD/W7
  please vb to give/afford pleasure/satisfaction AHD/W7
  supple adj compliant, obsequious AHD/W7
  supplicate vb to make humble entreaty AHD/W7
Dutch: archipel n archipelago CDC
  vlae(ghe)n vb to flay ASD
  vlag n flag TLL
  vlakte n plain TLL
Old High German: flah adj smooth W7
German: Archipel n archipelago CDC
  Flagge n flag TLL
Old Norse: flaga n slab W7
  flaki adj smooth W7
Icelandic: flā vb to flay ASD
  flōki n.masc (kind of) halibut ASD
Norwegian: flak n disk W7
  flo n flat layer W7
Danish: flag n flag TLL
Swedish: flaga n flake, flaw W7
  flagg n flag TLL
  flå vb to flay ASD
Latin: complacens, complacentis adj/vb.ptc pleasing, trying to please W7
  complaceo, complacēre vb to please greatly W7
  pelagicus adj re: deep sea W7
  pelagus n sea AHD
  placatus vb.ptc pleased, placated W7
  placenta n.fem flat cake W7
  placeō, placēre, placuī, placitum vb to please, placate LRC
  placidus adj calm, tranquil, placid W7
  placitus vb.ptc placated W7
  placo, placāre vb to please, placate W7
  plaga n.fem flat surface, tract W7
  plaga n.fem net, snare, trap W7
  plagiārius n.masc kidnapper; plagiarist W7
  plagium n.neut hunting net W7
  planca adj one with flat feet W7
  plico, plicāre vb to fold W7
  supplex, supplicis adj kneeling, suppliant, submissive W7
  supplico, supplicare vb to kneel, beseech, supplicate W7
Medieval Latin: placitum n.neut decree, decision W7
Old Portuguese: arcepelago n archipelago CDC
Portuguese: archipelago n archipelago CDC
Old Spanish: arcipielago n archipelago CDC
Spanish: archipielago n archipelago CDC
  playa n.fem beach W7
Old French: plaid n.masc plea W7
  plait n.masc plea W7
  souple adj supple, submissive W7
Old North French: planke n.fem plank W7
Middle French: plaid n.masc plea W7
  plaidier vb to plead W7
  plairir vb to please W7
  plaisant adj pleasant W7
  plaisir n.masc pleasure W7
French: archipelague n archipelago CDC
Old Occitan: archipel n archipelago CDC
Italian: arcipelago n.masc archipelago, chief sea W7
  pelago n sea AHD
Homeric Greek: πέλαγος n.masc (open) sea LRC
Greek: pelagikos adj re: sea W7
  pelagos n sea AHD
  Πελασγικός adj Pelasgian LRC
  plagios adj oblique, sideways W7
  plagos n.masc side W7
  plakous adj flat, cake-shaped W7
  plax n.fem flat surface W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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