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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: pōu- : pəu- : pū̆-   'few, small, little; young (of animals)'

Semantic Fields: Small, Little; Young; Animal


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: cæcepol n catchpole W7
  fēa(wa) adj few ASD
  fola n.masc foal, colt ASD
Middle English: cacchepol n catchpole W7
  depauperat adj depauperate W7
  enpoverisen vb to impoverish W7
  fewe adj/pron few W7
  fole n foal W7
  fyly n filly W7
  paucite n paucity W7
  polet n pullet, young fowl W7
  poure adj poor W7
  poverte n poverty W7
  pultrie n poultry W7
English: catchpole n sheriff's deputy AHD/W7
  depauperate adj falling short in natural size/development AHD/W7
  encyclopedia n work containing information re: all branches of knowledge AHD/W7
  few adj/pron not many (persons/things) AHD/W7
  filly n young female horse AHD/W7
  foal n young animal of horse family AHD/W7
  impoverish vb.trans to make poor, induce poverty AHD/W7
  orthopedics n correction/prevention of skeletal deformities AHD/W7
  paraffin n flammable waxy crystalline substance AHD/W7
  parvovirus n infective agent with DNA in icosahedral protein shell AHD
  paucity n fewness, smallness in number AHD/W7
  Paul prop.n male given name; Apostle to the Gentiles (New Testament) LRC
  pauper n person destitute of means AHD/W7
  poco adv somewhat AHD/W7
  pococurante adj careless, indifferent, apathetic AHD
  poltroon n craven, spiritless coward AHD/W7
  pony n small horse AHD/W7
  pool n aggregate stake to which game players have contributed AHD/W7
  poor adj lacking material possessions, re: poverty AHD/W7
  poulard n young hen spayed for fattening AHD
  poulter n poulterer CDC
  poulterer n poultry seller CDC
  poultry n domesticated bird(s) kept for meat/eggs AHD/W7
  poverty n want, lack of money/material possessions AHD/W7
  puerile adj juvenile, childish AHD/W7
  puerperal adj re: parturition AHD/W7
  pullet n young hen AHD/W7
  putto n Renaissance artistic representation of small child AHD
  Windfola prop.n Eowyn's horse in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old Frisian:  adj few ASD
  folla n.masc foal ASD
Frisian: fole n foal ASD
Dutch: volen/veulen n.neut foal ASD
Old Saxon: fāh adj few ASD
Low German: falen/vale n foal ASD
  fege/vöge adj few ASD
Old High German:  adj little W7
  fōh adj few ASD
  folo n.masc foal, young animal ASD
  fuli n.neut chick, young animal ASD
Middle High German: vol(e) n.masc foal ASD
  vüli/vuln n.neut foal ASD
German: fohle n.masc foal ASD
  füllen n.neut foal ASD
  Paraffin n.neut paraffin W7
Old Norse: fár adj few LRC
  fylja n foal W7
Icelandic: fār adj few ASD
  foli n.masc foal ASD
Danish: faa adj few ASD
  fole n.masc/fem foal ASD
  føl n.neut foal ASD
Swedish: föl n.neut foal ASD
   adj few ASD
Gothic: faus/faws adj few ASD
  fula n.masc foal ASD
Latin: affinis adj bordering on, related by marriage W7
  parō, parāre vb to prepare, make ready; acquire, obtain W7
  paro, parere vb to give birth to W7
  parum adv too little LRC
  parvulus, parvula, parvulum adj childhood LRC
  parvus, parva, parvum adj small LRC
  paucitās, paucitātis n.fem scarcity W7
  paucus adj few, little W7
  paulatim adv gradually LRC
  paulo adv little LRC
  Paulus n.masc Paul W7
  pauper adj poor W7
  pauperō, pauperāre vb to impoverish W7
  paupertās, paupertātis n.fem poverty W7
  puer, pueri n.masc boy, child LRC
  puerilis adj childish, of children W7
  puerpera n.fem woman in childbirth W7
  pullus n.masc young chicken/animal, sprout W7
Late Latin: pullus n.masc chicken W7
Medieval Latin: depauperatus vb.ptc impoverished W7
  depauperō, depauperāre vb to impoverish W7
  encyclopaedia n.fem general education W7
  pullanus n.masc pony W7
Portuguese: pobre adj poor, impoverished TLL
Spanish: pobre adj poor, impoverished TLL
  poco adj small, little (in quantity) W7
Old French: polet n.masc poultry W7
  poul n.masc cock W7
  poule n.fem hen W7
  poulet n.masc.dim pullet, small chicken W7
  pouleterie n.fem poultry W7
  pouletier n.masc poulterer W7
  poverté n.fem poverty W7
  povre adj poor W7
Old North French: cachepol n.masc chicken chaser W7
  pol n.masc chicken W7
Middle French: empovrir vb to impoverish W7
  empovriss- stem to impoverish W7
  paucité n.fem paucity, being few W7
  poulet n.masc.dim pullet, small chicken W7
  pouleterie n.fem poultry W7
  poultron adj coward W7
  povre adj poor W7
French: pauvre adj poor, impoverished TLL
  poulain n.masc colt W7
  poule n.fem hen W7
  puérile adj puerile W7
Old Italian: poltro n.masc colt W7
  poltrone n.masc colt W7
Italian: pòco adv little, small W7
  povero adj poor, impoverished TLL
Greek: παιδεία n.fem child-rearing AHD/LS
  παιδίον n.neut young child LRC
  παῖς, παιδός n.masc/fem child; slave, servant LS
  Paulos n.masc Paul W7
Sanskrit: putra n son W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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