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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: prāi-, prəi-, prī-, pri-   'to like, feel friendly/well-disposed'

Semantic Fields: Dear; Friend

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Welsh: rhydd adj free RPN
English  
Old English: frēo/frī(o) adj free; noble; joyful RPN/ASD
  frēo n.masc/fem lord, master; lady, woman RPN
  frēod n.fem peace, friendship, affection RPN
  frēo(ga)n vb.wk to (make) free; like, love RPN/ASD
  freoh/frioh/frig/frȳ adj free; noble; joyful ASD
  frēo-mǣg/frēo-māg n.masc dear kinsman ASD
  frēond/frīond n.masc friend; lover; relative RPN/ASD
  fre(o)ðo/fri(o)ðu n.fem peace; refuge, protection, security ASD/RPN
  frīgan vb to free, love RPN
  frīgedæg/frigdæg n.masc Friday, lit. Frigg's day W7/ASD
  friþ/fryþ n.masc/neut peace, freedom; refuge, protection, security CDC/ASD
Middle English: aferd(e) adj afraid MEV
  affraied vb.ptc afraid W7
  affraien vb to startle, frighten W7
  affray n fear; affray MEV/W7
  berfreid/belfray n belfry CDC
  berfrey/belfry n belfry W7
  free adj free W7
  frend n friend W7
  Friday prop.n Friday, lit. Frigg's day W7
English: affray n fray, brawl AHD/W7
  affray vb.trans to frighten, startle AHD/W7
  afraid adj filled with fear/apprehension AHD/W7
  belfry n siege tower AHD/W2I
  filibuster n irregular military adventurer AHD/W7
  free adj having legal/political rights of citizen AHD/W7
  freebooter n pirate, plunderer AHD/W7
  Friday prop.n day between Thursday and Saturday AHD/W7
  friend n person attached to another by esteem/affection AHD/W7
  Frigg(a) prop.n goddess of sky/heavens (Norse mythology) AHD/W2I
Scots English: frend n relation ASD
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: fri adj free ASD
  fria(ia)/fraia vb to free ASD
  frī(g)endei n Friday, lit. Frigg's day ODE
  friond/friund n.masc friend ASD
Frisian: frjuen n friend ASD
  fry adj free ASD
Middle Dutch: bergfert/bergfrede n protecting shelter CDC
  vrīdah n Friday, lit. Frigg's day ODE
Dutch: vri(e)nd n.masc friend ASD
  vrij adj free ASD
  vrijbuit n plunder W7
  vrijbuiter n freebooter W7
  vrijdag n Friday, lit. Frigg's day ODE
  vrijen vb to woo ASD
Old Saxon: frī adj free ASD
  friðu n.masc peace, love, concord, amity ASD
  friohan vb to love ASD
  friund n.masc friend; relation ASD
Low German: fri(j) adj free ASD
  frijen vb to free; woo ASD
  frund/fründ n.masc friend ASD
Old High German: frî adj free ASD
  frīatag n.masc Friday, lit. Frigg's day W7
  frido/fridu n.masc peace; shelter, protection, security ASD/CDC
  friunt/frīont/friant n.masc friend W7/ASD
  vrīten vb to cherish RPN
Middle High German: bercfrit/bercvrit n belfry CDC
  berchfrit/berhfride n belfry CDC
  fride n peace; shelter, security CDC
  vrî adj free ASD
  vrī(g)en vb to free ASD
  vriunt n.masc friend ASD
German: befreien vb to free ASD
  frei adj free ASD
  freien vb to woo ASD
  Freitag n.masc Friday, lit. Frigg's day LRC
  freuen vb to be glad LRC
  Freund n.masc friend ASD
  Friede(n) n.masc peace; shelter, security CDC
  Friedhof n cemetary TLL
  friedlich adj peaceful LRC
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: friðr n.masc peace LRC
  Frigg prop.n Frigg, wife of Odin AHD
  fríðr adj handsome LRC
Old Icelandic: friða vb to pacify RPN
  friðill n lover RPN
  fríða vb to adorn RPN
  frjá vb to love RPN
  frjáls n love RPN
  frændi n kinsman RPN
Icelandic: frī adj free ASD
  frja vb to pet ASD
  frændi n.masc kinsman ASD
Danish: frende/frænde n.masc/fem cousin, kinsman ASD
  fri adj free ASD
  frie vb to woo; deliver ASD
Swedish: fri adj free ASD
  fria vb to free, save; court ASD
  frände n.masc relation ASD
E-Germanic  
Gothic: freidjan vb to take care of RPN
  freihals n freedom RPN
  freis adj free RPN
  friaþwa adj showing love RPN
  friaþwa n.str.fem love, charity LRC
  frijei n freedom RPN
  frijōn vb.wk.II to love LRC
  frijondi n.fem female friend ASD
  frijonds n.masc friend RPN/ASD
  ga-friþōn vb to make peace between KGW
Italic  
Middle Latin: ber(e)fredus/berefridus n belfry CDC
Spanish: filibustero n.masc pirate, freebooter W7
Old French: berfrai/berfray/berefreit n belfry CDC
  berfroi/belefroi n belfry CDC
  effrei/esfrei n affray AHD
  esfaier/esfreer vb to disturb AHD
Middle French: affreer vb to startle W7
French: beffroi n belfry, watchtower, bell tower CDC
Italian: battifredo n belfry CDC
Baltic  
Latvian: priêks n joy RPN
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: prijaznь n love RPN
  prijatelь n friend RPN
  prějǫ, prijati vb to be favorable RPN
Hellenic  
Greek: πραύς adj meek, gentle LRC
Iranian  
Avestan: frīnāiti vb to love, praise RPN
  fryō adj dear RPN
Indic  
Sanskrit: priyá-ḥ adj dear, beloved RPN
  priyā n wife W2I
  prīṇā́ti vb to please, be pleased RPN
  prīti-ḥ n joy, pleasure RPN
  prī́yate vb to be pleased RPN
  premán- n love, fondness, kindness RPN
  préyas- adj/n very dear; lover, dear friend RPN

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
prop=proper
ptc=participle
str=strong (inflection)
trans=transitive
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
KGW=Gerhard Köbler: Gotisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (1989)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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