The University of Texas at Austin; College of Liberal Arts
Hans C. Boas, Director :: PCL 5.556, 1 University Station S5490 :: Austin, TX 78712 :: 512-471-4566
LRC Links: Home | About | Books Online | EIEOL | IE Doc. Center | IE Lexicon | IE Maps | IE Texts | Pub. Indices | SiteMap

Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: pret-, prō̆t-   'to understand'

Semantic Field: to Understand

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: frōd adj wise, sage, prudent, experienced LRC
English: Frodo prop.n hobbit hero in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: frod adj wise, prudent; brave; healthy ASD
Frisian: froed adj wise, prudent; brave; healthy ASD
Dutch: vroed adj wise, prudent; brave; healthy ASD
Old Saxon: frōd adj wise, prudent; brave; healthy ASD
Low German: frod/vrood adj wise, prudent; brave; healthy ASD
Old High German: frōt/fruot adj wise, prudent; brave; healthy ASD
Middle High German: vruot adj wise, prudent; brave; healthy ASD
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: fróðr adj wise, learned, well-informed LRC
E-Germanic  
Gothic: fraþjan vb.str.VI to understand LRC
  frōþs adj wise, prudent ASD
Baltic  
Lithuanian: prõtas n.masc mind LRC
  supràsti, suprañta, suprãto vb to understand LRC
Latvian: saprast, saprotu, sapratu vb to understand LRC

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VI=class 6
adj=adjective
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
prop=proper
str=strong (inflection)
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin

Nearby etyma:    previous   |   next