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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: preus-   'to burn, freeze'

Semantic Fields: to Burn, Scorch; Cold, Frigid


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: forst n.masc frost LRC
  frēorig adj cold, chill, freezing LRC
  frēosan, frēas, fruron, froren vb.str to freeze W7/ASD
Middle English: fresen vb to freeze W7
  froren vb.past.ptc frozen W7
  frost n frost W7
English: freeze, froze, frozen vb.str to solidify, become congealed into ice due to cold AHD/W7
  Frery prop.n Bree calendar's January in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  frore adj frozen, frosty AHD/W7
  frost n minute ice crystals AHD/W7
  pruinose adj covered with whitish dust/bloom AHD/W7
  prurient adj itching, craving restlessly AHD/W7
  prurigo n chronic inflammatory skin disease AHD/W7
  pruritus n itching AHD/W7
Old Frisian: forst/frost n frost ASD
Frisian: froast n frost ASD
Dutch: vorst n.fem frost ASD
  vriezen vb to freeze ASD
Old Saxon: frost n.masc frost ASD
Low German: fresen/freren vb to freeze ASD
Old High German: friosan/freosan/friusan vb to freeze W7/ASD
  frost n frost W7
  frost n.masc frost ASD
Middle High German: vriusen vb to freeze ASD
  vrost n.masc frost ASD
German: frieren vb to freeze ASD
  Frost n.masc frost ASD
Old Norse: frjósa vb to freeze LRC
Icelandic: frjōsa vb to freeze ASD
  frost n.neut frost ASD
Danish: frost n.masc/fem frost ASD
  fryse vb to freeze ASD
Swedish: frost n.masc frost ASD
  frysa vb to freeze ASD
Gothic: *frius n.neut frost ASD/GED
Latin: pruina n.fem hoarfrost W7
  pruinosus adj covered with hoarfrost W7
  pruna n.fem glowing coal W7
  prunia n.fem hoarfrost W7
  pruriens, prurientis vb.ptc itching; being wanton W7
  prurigo n.fem itch W7
  prūriō, prūrīre vb to itch; be wanton W7
  pruritus vb.ptc having itched W7
New Latin: prurigo n.fem chronic inflammatory skin disease W7
Sanskrit: ploṣati vb to singe W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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