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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. pū̆- : peu̯ə-   'to rot, stink'

Semantic Fields: to Spoil; Stinking, Bad Smelling


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fūl adj foul W7
  fȳlan vb.wk to file W7/ASD
  fȳlþ n.fem filth W7
Middle English: defilen vb to defile W7
  defoulen vb to foil, defile W7
  filen vb to file W7
  filth n filth W7
  fog n fog W7
  foilen vb to foil, full cloth W7
  foul adj foul W7
English: defile vb.trans to dirty, make filthy AHD/W7
  empyema n presence of pus in body cavity AHD/W7
  file vb.trans to defile, corrupt AHD/W7
  filth n foul/putrid matter AHD/W7
  fog n dead/decaying grass (in winter) AHD/W7
  foil vb.trans to trample AHD/W7
  foul adj rotten, loathsome, offensive to senses AHD/W7
  fulmar n Arctic seabird AHD/W7
  fuzzy adj resembling/covered with fuzz AHD/W7
  potpourri n stew, different meats/vegetables cooked together AHD/CDC
  purulent adj re: pus AHD/W7
  pus n thick opaque yellowish white body fluid AHD/W7
  putrescent adj putrid, re: putrefaction AHD/W7
  putrid adj rotten, in state of putrefaction AHD/W7
  suppurate vb.intrans to form/discharge pus AHD/W7
Old Frisian: ful adj foul ASD
Frisian: fule/fuwle adj foul ASD
Dutch: vuil adj foul ASD
Old Saxon: fūliþa n.fem filth ASD
Low German: fussig adj loose, spongy W7
  fu(u)l/vuul adj foul ASD
Old High German: fūl adj foul W7
  fūlida n.fem filth ASD
Middle High German: vūl adj foul ASD
German: faul adj foul ASD
  Fäule n.fem rot, decay LRC
Old Norse: fúinn adj rotten, decayed LRC
  fūll adj foul W7
  fūlmār n gull, fulmar W7
Danish: fuul adj foul ASD
Swedish: ful adj foul ASD
Gothic: fuls adj foul ASD
Latin: purulentus adj purulent W7
  pus n.neut pus W7
  puteo, putēre vb to stink W7
  puter adj putrid W7
  putreo, putrēre vb to be rotten W7
  putrescens, putrescentis adj/vb.ptc rotting W7
  putresco, putrescere vb to grow rotten W7
  putridus adj putrid W7
  putris adj putrid W7
  suppuratus vb.ptc suppurated W7
  suppuro, suppurare vb to suppurate W7
Late Latin: empyema n.neut empyema W7
Old French: defouler vb to trample W7
  fouler vb to foul, trample W7
Middle French: fouler vb to trample W7
French: pourri adj rotten W7
Greek: pyon n.neut pus W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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