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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. rebh-   'to roof, thatch'

Semantic Field: Roof


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: rib(b) n.neut rib ASD
Middle English: rib n rib W7
  riff n reef (of sail) W7
English: reef n chain/ridge of rocks/sand at/near water surface AHD/W7
  reef n part of sail pulled in/out to regulate size AHD/W7
  rib n curved bony/cartilaginous rod helping stiffen vertebrate body walls AHD/W7
  spareribs pork ribs separated from bacon strip AHD/W7
Dutch: rib n rib TLL
  rif n reef (of rock/sand) W7
Middle Low German: ribbe n rib W7
  ribbesper n spareribs: (pickled) spit-roasted pork ribs W7
Low German: ribbesper n spareribs: (pickled) spit-roasted pork ribs W7
Old High German: rippa n.fem rib ASD
  rippi n.str.neut rib ASD
German: Riff n.neut reef LRC
  Rippe n.fem rib LRC
Old Norse: rif n.neut rib; reef LRC
Icelandic: rif n.neut rib ASD
Danish: ribben n rib TLL
Swedish: revben n rib TLL
Greek: ἐρέφω vb to roof over, make a roof LRC
  ὀροφή n.fem roof LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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