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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. reg̑-   'to regulate, make just/right; king, reign'

Semantic Fields: Right (adj); King


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: reg- vb to stretch out LRC
   n.masc king W7/IED
Old English: bisc(e)op-rīce n.neut bishopric W7/ASD
  gerecenian vb.wk to narrate W7/ASD
  racu n.fem rake W7/ASD
  ranc adj strong, overbearing W7
  reccan vb to stretch, extend W7/ASD
  rica n.masc ruler ASD
  rīce n.wk.neut reign, region, kingdom LRC
  riht adj right, straight, erect ASD
  riht n.neut right, law, justice; plumb line W7
Middle English: adressen vb to address W7
  bisshopriche n bishopric W7
  correct adj correct W7
  correcten vb to correct W7
  corvee n corvee W7
  direct adj direct W7
  directen vb to direct W7
  *elfriche n fairyland W7
  erect adj erect W7
  incorrigible adj incorrigible W7
  prerogative n prerogative W7
  prorogen vb to prorogue W7
  rack n rack W7
  raile n rail W7
  rake n rake W7
  rank adj rank W7
  real adj real W7
  realme n realm W7
  rectitude n rectitude W7
  regal adj regal W7
  regent n regent W7
  regimen n regimen W7
  regiment n regiment W7
  region n region W7
  regne n reign W7
  reguler adj regular W7
  reule n rule W7
  riche adj rich, precious, prosperous W7
  riche n sovereign territory W7
  right adj/n right W7
  rogacion n rogation W7
  roial adj royal W7
  sours n source W7
English: abrogate vb.trans to annul, abolish by authoritative action AHD/W7
  address vb to aim, direct AHD/W7
  adroit adj dexterous in use of hands AHD/W7
  alert adj watchful/prompt to meet danger AHD/W7
  anorectic adj re: anorexia AHD
  anorexia n loss of appetite AHD/W7
  arrogate vb.trans to claim/seize as one's right without justification AHD/W7
  bishopric n diocese, bishop's province AHD/W7
  correct adj conforming to approved/conventional standard AHD/W7
  correct vb.trans to amend, set/make right AHD/W7
  corvee n unpaid labor due to feudal lord AHD/W7
  derogate vb to disparage, cause to seem inferior AHD/W7
  direct adj straight, proceeding from point to point without deviation/interruption AHD/W7
  direct vb to write to someone AHD/W7
  eldritch adj weird, eerie AHD/W7
  erect adj vertical in position AHD/W7
  ergo adv hence, therefore AHD/W7
  incorrigible adj unable to be amended/corrected AHD/W7
  interrogate vb.trans to question formally/systematically AHD/W7
  maharani n wife of maharaja AHD/W7
  porrect adj extended forward AHD/W7
  prerogative n special/exclusive right/power/privilege AHD/W7
  prorogue vb to defer, postpone AHD/W7
  rack n framework for holding livestock fodder AHD/W7
  rail n bar extending from post to post AHD/W7
  raita n Indian salad/condiment: yogurt with chopped fruits/vegetables AHD
  raj n reign AHD/W7
  raja(h) n chief, prince W7
  rake n implement with projecting prongs for gathering material AHD/W7
  rani n rajah's wife, Hindu queen AHD/W7
  rank adj excessively/luxuriantly vigorous in growth AHD/W7
  real adj re: fixed/permanent/immovable things (e.g. land) AHD/W7
  realm n kingdom AHD/W7
  rectangle n parallelogram of 4 sides/right angles AHD/W7
  rectilinear adj forming/moving in straight line AHD/W7
  rectitude n straightness AHD/W7
  recto n right-hand page AHD/W7
  rector n leader, one who directs AHD/W7
  rectum n terminal portion of intestine AHD/W7
  rectus n straight muscle (e.g. of abdomen) AHD/W7
  regal adj re: king AHD/W7
  regent n ruling authority/principle AHD/W7
  regicide n one who kills king AHD/W7
  regime n regimen AHD/W7
  regimen n systematic course of therapy AHD/W7
  regiment n governmental rule AHD/W7
  region n (administrative) area/district/division AHD/W7
  regius adj royal, re: king AHD
  reglet n flat narrow architectural molding AHD/W7
  regular adj belonging to religious order AHD/W7
  regulate vb.trans to direct/govern according to rule AHD/W7
  Regulus prop.n brightest star in constellation Leo AHD/W7
  regulus n impure metal mass formed beneath slag AHD/W7
  Reich prop.n government/territory of German empire AHD
  reichsmark n German mark (1925-48) W7
  reign n sovereignty, royal authority AHD/W7
  resurge vb to surge back, rise again AHD
  rial n Persian monetary unit AHD/W7
  rich adj wealthy, possessing/controlling great wealth AHD/W7
  right adj correct, upright, righteous AHD/W7
  right n adherence/obedience to duty/lawful authority AHD/W7
  Risorgimento prop.n movement leading to political unification of Italy AHD
  ri(y)al n Arabic monetary unit AHD/W7
  rogation n litany, supplication AHD/W7
  rogatory adj seeking/requesting/collecting information AHD/CDC
  royal adj of kingly ancestry AHD/W7
  rule n prescribed guide for action/conduct AHD/W7
  rye n gypsy gentleman AHD/W7
  sord n flock/flight of mallards AHD
  source n fountainhead, origin of running water AHD/W7
  subrogate vb.trans to substitute, put in place of another AHD/W7
  supererogate vb to do more than required by need/duty/obligation AHD/W7
  surge vb to toss, rise/fall actively AHD/W7
  vicereine n wife of viceroy AHD/W7
  viceroy n governor of country/province who represents king/sovereign AHD/W7
Old Frisian: rīke n reign, power, authority ASD
  riucht n right, law ASD
Middle Dutch: rec n framework W7
Dutch: rijk adj rich TLL
Old Saxon: recht adj right, straight LRC
  reht n right, law ASD
  rekkian vb to stretch, extend ASD
  rīki n reign, power, authority ASD
Old High German: reckian vb to stretch, extend ASD
  rehho n rake W7
  reht adj/n right, straight; right, law W7/ASD
  rīhhi adj/n rich; reign, power, authority W7/ASD
  ruohhen vb to take heed W7
German: Rechen n.masc rake LRC
  Recht n.neut law, right LRC
  rechts adj right-hand LRC
  recken vb to stretch, extend LRC
  Reich n.neut realm, empire LRC
  reich adj rich TLL
  Reichsmark n.fem reichsmark LRC
Old Norse: reka vb to drive LRC
  rekkr n.masc man, warrior LRC
  réttr adj right, correct; just, fair; direct, unswerving LRC
Icelandic: rakkr adj bold, courageous ASD
  rekja vb to unwind, unfold, spread out ASD
  rēttr n.masc right, law; due, claim ASD
  rīki n reign, power, authority ASD
Danish: rig adj rich TLL
Swedish: rik adj rich TLL
Gothic: raihts adj right, straight LRC
  reiki n reign, power, authority ASD
  reiks n king, ruler LRC
  uf-rakjan vb to stretch out ASD
Latin: abrogatus vb.ptc abrogated W7
  abrogo, abrogāre vb to annul, abrogate W7
  angulus n.masc angle W7
  arrogatus vb.ptc claimed, assumed W7
  arrogo, arrogare vb to claim, assume W7
  correctus vb.ptc straightened W7
  corrigo, corrigere vb to correct, make straight W7
  corrogatus vb.ptc collected, requisitioned W7
  corrogo, corrogare vb to collect, requisition W7
  derogo, derogare vb to annul (law), detract W7
  directus vb.ptc directed, set straight W7
  dirigo, dirigere vb to direct, set straight W7
  erectus vb.ptc built up, made straight up W7
  ergo conj so, thus W7
  erigo, erigere vb to erect W7
  interrogatus vb.ptc interrogated W7
  interrogo, interrogare vb to interrogate W7
  porrectus vb.ptc stretched out W7
  porrigo, porrigere vb to stretch out W7
  praerogativus adj voting first W7
  praerogatus vb.ptc who voted first W7
  praerogo, praerogare vb to request an opinion before another W7
  prorogo, prorogare vb to extend an office W7
  rector n.masc one who directs W7
  rectus adj right W7
  rectus vb.ptc directed W7
  regalis adj re: king W7
  regens adj/vb.ptc directing W7
  regimen, regiminis n.neut rule W7
  regina, reginae n.fem queen LRC
  regio, regionis n.fem limit, division, direction W7
  regnum, regni n.neut reign; empire, kingdom LRC
  rego, regere vb to rule, direct, keep straight W7
  regula n.fem rule, ruler W7
  regularis adj regular, according to rule/ruler W7
  regulus n.masc petty king W7
  res n.fem thing, fact W7
  rex, regis n.masc king LRC
  rigor, rigoris n.masc rigor LRC
  rogatio n.fem questioning W7
  rogatus vb.ptc asked, proposed law W7
  rogo, rogāre vb to ask, propose (a law) W7
  subrogatus vb.ptc asked for, demanded (law) W7
  subrogo, subrogare vb to ask for, demand (law) W7
  surgo, surgere vb to rise W7
  surrogo, surrogare vb to substitute W7
Late Latin: derogatus vb.ptc cancelled law W7
  derogo, derogāre vb to annul (law), derogate W7
  incorrigibilis adj incorrigible W7
  realis adj real W7
  rectilineus adj in a straight line W7
  rectitudo n.fem rectitude W7
  regimentum n.neut direction, government W7
  regulatus vb.ptc regulated W7
  regulo, regulāre vb to regulate W7
  rogatio, rogationis n.fem act of asking W7
Medieval Latin: corrogata n.fem corvee W7
  realis adj relating to things (in law) W7
  rectangulus adj having a right angle W7
  regens, regentis adj/vb.ptc in power, excercising kingly power W7
  regulus n.masc metallic antimony W7
New Latin: anorexia n.fem anorexia W7
  folio n.masc leaf of manuscript W7
  recto n.masc side of page/leaf to be read first W7
  rectum n.neut terminal part of intestine W7
  rectus adj straight, right W7
  regicida n.masc king-killer W7
  regicidium n.neut king-killing W7
  Regulus prop.n.masc star in constellation Leo W7
Spanish: real adj real, royal LRC
  real n.masc old Spanish coin LRC
Old French: realme n.fem rule, area of ruling W7
  règne n.masc reign W7
  reule n.fem rule W7
  sourdre vb to rise, spring forth W7
  sourse n.fem source W7
Middle French: adresser vb to address W7
  corvee n.fem corvee W7
  prérogative n.fem prerogative, privilege W7
  proroguer vb to prorogue W7
  real adj relating to things (in law) W7
  rectitude n.fem rectitude W7
  regal adj kingly, of a king W7
  regent n.masc regent, one acting as temporary king W7
  regiment n.masc regiment, part of army W7
  région n.fem area W7
  règle n.fem rule W7
  reglet n.masc ruler, straight-edge W7
  reguler vb to regulate W7
  reille n.fem bar; ruler W7
  roi n.masc king W7
  roial adj royal, re: the king W7
  sors n.fem spring W7
  sourdre vb to rise, surge W7
  sourge- vb.stem to rise, surge W7
  sourse n.fem source W7
  vice-roi n.masc viceroy W7
French: adroit adj adroit, habile W7
  alerte adj alert AHD
  régime n.masc diet; regime, authoritarian government W7
  réglet n.masc ruler, straight-edge W7
  reine n.fem queen W7
  vicereine n.fem vice-queen W7
Italian: Risorgimento prop.n Risorgimento AHD
Lithuanian: rę́žtis vb to stretch oneself out LRC
Latvian: ruôzîtiês vb to draw oneself out LRC
Russian: surázina n good order LRC
Homeric Greek: ὀρέγω vb to reach, extend, stretch out LRC
Greek: anorektos adj anorectic, without desire AHD
  ὄρεξις n.fem desire, longing, appetite LRC
Avestan: raz- vb to arrange, straighten LRC
Sanskrit: rají- adj straight LRC
  rājan n king, raja W7
  rājñī n (Hindu) queen W7
  rājya n raj, rule W7
  rai n property W7
Hindi: mahārānī n (Hindu) king's wife, Indian princess W7
  rājā n king, raja W7
  rāj n raj W7
  rānē n (Hindu) queen W7
Romani: rai n king W7
Tocharian B: raksau vb to stretch out LRC
Tocharian A: räk- vb to cover, spread out LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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