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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. rei-   'to cut, reap, rive, tear, scratch'

Semantic Fields: to Cut; to Tear; to Rub


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: rǣw/rāw n.fem row, line ASD
  rāp n.masc rope ASD
  re(o)pan/rīpan vb.str to reap ASD
  rīpe adj ripe W7
  rȳfe/rīfe adj rife W7/ASD
Middle English: ariven/arryven vb to arrive W7/MEV
  rawe n row W7
  repen vb to reap W7
  rift n rift W7
  ripe adj ripe W7
  ripelen vb to ripple IEW
  riven vb to rive W7
  rivere n river W7
  rope n rope W7
  ryfe adj rife W7
English: arrive vb.intrans to reach destination AHD/W7
  Orcrist prop.n sword (Goblin-Cleaver) in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
  reap vb to cut with scythe/sickle AHD/W7
  rife adj widespread, abundant, prevalent AHD/W7
  rift n fissure, crevasse AHD/W7
  rigatoni n short curved fluted pieces of macaroni AHD/W7
  rimose adj having numerous clefts/cracks/fissures AHD/W7
  riparian adj re: location on bank of natural watercourse AHD/W7
  ripe adj mature, fully grown/developed AHD/W7
  ripple vb to become ruffled/covered with small waves IEW/W7
  rist vb to slash, wound; mark, scratch, engrave W2I
  rivage n bank, shore, coast AHD
  rive vb to rend, cleave, tear apart AHD/W7
  Rivendell prop.n elven refuge in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
  river n large natural stream of water AHD/W7
  rope n stout cord of wire/fiber strands twisted/braided together AHD/W7
  row n set of objects in line/series/sequence AHD/W7
Dutch: rivier n river TLL
Old Saxon: rīpi adj ripe ASD
Middle Low German: risten vb to carve, engrave IEW
Old High German: reif n.masc rope ASD
  rīfi adj ripe ASD
  rīga n line W7
German: reif adj ripe LRC
Old Norse: rīfa vb to rive W7
  rīfr adj rife W7
  rīsta vb.str to cut, slash, carve, slice W2I/IEW/ICE
Old Icelandic: rista vb.wk to cut, slash, carve, slice IEW/ICE
Icelandic: reip n.neut rope ASD
  rīf-ligr adj large, munificent ASD
Norwegian: rift n rift, scratch W7/NED
Danish: riste vb to cut, slash, carve ICE
Old Swedish: rīsta vb to carve/engrave (runes) IEW
Gothic: raip n.neut rope ASD
Latin: rima n.fem slit, crack W7
  rimosus adj slit, cracked W7
  rīpa n.fem riverbank, seashore W7
  riparia n.fem shore W7
  riparius adj riparian, re: shore W7
Vulgar Latin: arripo, arripāre vb to come to shore W7
  riparia n.fem shore W7
Old French: ar(r)iver vb to arrive W7/MEV
  rivere n.fem bank, shore W7
Italian: rigare vb to furrow, flute W7
  rigato vb.ptc fluted, furrowed W7
Greek: ereipein vb to tear down W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
NED=Einar Haugen: Norwegian-English Dictionary (1965)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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