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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ret(h)-   'to run, roll, rotate'

Semantic Fields: to Run; to Roll

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: rethim vb to run IEW
Middle Irish: tōir n.fem act of pursuing W7
Irish: rithim vb to run LRC
  roth n.masc wheel IEW
  tōraidhe n.masc robber, pursued man W7
Breton: redek vb to run LRC
  rod n wheel LRC
Middle Welsh: rhawd n path, course, action, running IEW
Welsh: redheg vb to run LRC
  rhod n.fem wheel IEW
English  
Old English: rador/rodor n.masc sky, heaven, firmament IEW
Middle English: controllen vb to control W7
  prouynen vb to prune W7
  rolle n roll W7
  round adj round W7
  rowelle n rowel W7
English: barouche n four-wheeled carriage AHD/W7
  control vb.trans to check/test/verify by evidence/experiments AHD/W7
  gravure n process for producing printing plate on wood/copper AHD/W7
  prune vb to cut off/cut back parts for better shape/more fruitful growth AHD/W7
  rodeo n roundup AHD/W7
  roll n scroll, written document that can be rolled up AHD/W7
  roll vb to move/impel by turning over W7
  rota n roster AHD/W7
  rotary adj turning on axis like wheel AHD/W7
  rotate adj having flat parts spreading/radiating like wheel spokes AHD/W7
  rotate vb to revolve, turn about axis/center AHD/W7
  rotiform adj rotate AHD/W7
  rotogravure n process in which impression is produced by rotary press AHD/W7
  rotor n part that rotates/revolves LRC
  rotund adj rounded, marked by roundness AHD/W7
  rotunda n round building AHD/W7
  roulette n gambling game involving small ball/compartmented wheel AHD/W7
  round adj having every part of surface/circumference equidistant from center AHD/W7
  rowel n revolving disk with sharp marginal points AHD/W7
  Tory prop.n member/supporter of Conservative Party in U.K., Canada, etc. LRC
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: reth n wheel IEW
Frisian: rolje vb to roll OED
Old Dutch: rath n wheel IEW
Middle Dutch: rollen vb to roll OED
Dutch: rad n wheel LRC
  rondom prep around TLL
Old Saxon: radur n sky, heaven, firmament ASD
Low German: rullen vb to roll OED
Old High German: rad n wheel W7
  rado/rato adv fast, quickly IEW
Middle High German: rade-ber n wheelbarrow CDC
German: Barutsche n.fem barouche W7
  Rad n.neut wheel LRC
  Radberge/Radbürge n wheelbarrow CDC
  rollen vb to roll OED
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: rǫðull n.masc sun, halo, corona IEW
Danish: rulle vb to roll OED
Swedish: rulla vb to roll OED
E-Germanic  
Gothic: *raþs adj light, facile, nimble IEW
Italic  
Latin: pango, pangere vb to fix, fasten W7
  propāgo, propāginis n.fem small stem/shoot (to be replanted) W7
  rota n.fem wheel W7
  roto, rotāre, rotāvī, rotātum vb to roll, rotate W7
  rotula n.fem.dim small wheel W7
  rotundus adj rotund W7
Vulgar Latin: *birotium n barouche AHD
Late Latin: birotus adj two-wheeled W7
  rotella n.fem.dim small wheel W7
Medieval Latin: rota n.fem wheel W7
  rotarius adj rotating W7
New Latin: rotiformis adj wheel-shaped W7
Portuguese: rolar vb to roll OED
Spanish: rodear vb to surround W7
  rodeo n.masc rodeo W7
  rollar vb to roll OED
  rueda n.fem wheel W7
Catalan: rotolar vb to roll, rotate OED
Old French: preugner/prougner vb to prune CDC
  provigner vb to propagate CDC
  roele n.fem.dim small wheel W7
  roelete n.fem.dim small wheel W7
  rolle n.fem wheel W7
  roller/ro(u)ler vb to roll OED
  roont adj round W7
Middle French: contrerolle n.masc audit, copy of an account W7
  contreroller vb to audit, copy an account W7
  proignier vb to layer, reproduce vines W7
  provain n.masc layer W7
  provigner vb to layer, reproduce vines W7
  rolle n.masc roll, register W7
  rouelle n.fem.dim small wheel W7
French: roue n.fem wheel LRC
  roulette n.fem.dim roulette, small wheel W7
Provençal: ro(t)lar vb to roll, rotate OED
Italian: baròccio/biròccio n.masc two-wheeled cart W7
  rotolare vb to roll, rotate OED
  rotonda adj round, plump W7
  ruota n.fem wheel LRC
Rumanian: roată n wheel LRC
Baltic  
Lithuanian: rãtas n.masc wheel, circle IEW
Latvian: rats n wheel IEW
Iranian  
Avestan: raθa n wagon, chariot IEW
Indic  
Sanskrit: rátha- n.masc wagon, chariot W7/IEW

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
adv=adverb(ial)
dim=diminutive
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
prep=preposition
prop=proper
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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