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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. reu-, reu̯ə- : rū̆-   'to open, tear out, dig/rip up, etc.'

Semantic Fields: to Open; to Tear; to Dig, Delve


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: be-rēafi(ge)an/bi-rēafian vb.wk to bereave W7
  ragg n rag W7
  rēaf n.neut spoil, booty ASD
  rēafere/rēafigend n.masc reaver ASD
  rēafian vb.wk to reave W7
  rēofan vb.str to break, rive, rend IEW/ASD
  rodd n rod W7
  rūh adj rough, hairy, shaggy W7
Middle English: bereven vb to bereave W7
  corrupt adj corrupt W7
  corrupten vb to corrupt W7
  garderobe n garderobe, bedroom, privy W7
  interrupten vb to interrupt W7
  ragge n rag W7
  rapen vb to rape W7
  reven vb to reave W7
  ridden vb to rid, clear W7
  robben vb to rob W7
  robe n robe W7
  robyl n rubble W7
  robys n rubbish W7
  rod n rod W7
  rough adj rough W7
  rover n rover W7
  rug n rag, tuft W7
  ruine n ruin W7
  ruptur n rupture W7
  usurpen vb to usurp W7
English: abrupt adj broken off AHD/W7
  bankrupt n person whose estate is legally administered for creditors' benefit AHD/W7
  bereave, bereft vb.str.trans to strip, dispossess, deprive esp. by death AHD/W7
  corrugate vb to furrow, form/shape into folds/grooves/ridges/wrinkles AHD/W7
  corrupt adj depraved, morally perverted AHD/W7
  corrupt vb to change morals/manners/actions from good to bad AHD/W7
  disrupt vb.trans to rupture, break apart AHD/W7
  erupt vb to release/force out suddenly/violently AHD/W7
  garderobe n wardrobe or its contents AHD/W7
  interrupt vb to stop/hinder by breaking in AHD/W7
  irrupt vb.intrans to rush in forcibly/violently AHD/W7
  loot n spoils, goods taken in war AHD/W7
  rabble n iron bar with end bent for use in puddling iron AHD/W7
  rag n waste piece of cloth AHD/W7
  rape vb.trans to seize, plunder W7
  reave vb to rob, spoil, plunder AHD/W7
  reaver n rover, robber, spoiler LRC
  rid, rid vb.trans to save, rescue; relieve; disencumber AHD/W7
  rip vb to split open, tear apart AHD/W7
  rob vb to steal from, take something by force/threat AHD/W7
  robe n long flowing outer garment AHD/W7
  rod n slender straight stick on/from tree/bush AHD/W7
  rough adj coarse, marked by ridges/projections/imperfections on surface AHD/W7
  rout n state of wild confusion/disorderly retreat AHD/W7
  rover n pirate, plunderer AHD/W7
  ruana n poncho, poncho-like garment AHD
  rubato n speed fluctuation within musical phrase AHD/W7
  rubbish n trash, useless waste IEW/W7
  rubble n rough stone from quarry IEW/W7
  ruble n unit of Russian currency AHD/W7
  rug n thick heavy fabric used as floor covering AHD/W7
  ruga n visceral fold/wrinkle AHD/W7
  rugose adj full of wrinkles AHD/W7
  ruin n collapse, downfall AHD/W7
  rupicolous adj living among/inhabiting/growing on rocks AHD/W7
  rupture n breach of peace/concord AHD/W7
  usurp vb to seize by force, hold without right AHD/W7
Old Frisian: rāf n booty, robbery; pledge ASD
  rāvia vb to reave ASD
Old Dutch: roof n spoils, booty, plunder ASD
  rouw/rū(gh) adj rough, hairy, shaggy ASD
  rōven vb to reave ASD
Middle Dutch: roven vb to reave W7
  rover n rover W7
Flemish: rippen vb to strip off roughly W7
Old Saxon: nōd-rōf n rapine ASD
Old High German: roub n spoils, booty, plunder ASD
  roubari n robber ASD
  roubōn vb to rob W7
  rūh adj rough, hairy, shaggy, bristly ASD
German: Bankrott n.masc bankrupt LRC
  Raub n.masc robbery LRC
  rauben vb to rob LRC
  Räuber n.masc robber ASD
Old Norse: rudda n club W7
  ryðja vb to clear W7
  rögg n tuft, shagginess W7
Icelandic: raufa vb to reave ASD
  raufari/reyfari n reaver ASD
  rjúfa vb to break, rip up ASD
  val-rauf n spoils taken from the slain ASD
Gothic: bi-raubon vb to rob ASD
Latin: abrumpo, abrumpere vb to break off W7
  abruptus vb.ptc steep, abrupt W7
  corrugatus vb.ptc wrinkled, corrugated W7
  corrugo, corrugāre vb to wrinkle, corrugate W7
  corrumpo, corrumpere vb to corrupt, break to pieces W7
  corruptus vb.ptc corrupt, broken to pieces W7
  disrumpo, disrumpere vb to break, disrupt W7
  disruptus vb.ptc broken, disrupted W7
  erumpo, erumpere vb to erupt, burst forth W7
  eruptus vb.ptc erupted, burst forth W7
  interrumpo, interrumpere vb to interrupt W7
  interruptus vb.ptc interrupted W7
  irrumpo, irrumpere vb to interrupt, break in W7
  irruptus vb.ptc irrupted, broken in W7
  rapiō, rapere vb to rape, ravish W7
  ruere vb to rush, fall, dig up W7
  ruga n.fem wrinkle W7
  rugosus adj harsh W7
  ruina n.fem ruin, destruction W7
  rumpō, rumpere, rūpī, ruptus vb to break LRC
  ruo, ruere vb to rush, hasten; collapse, hurl down W7
  rupes n.fem rock W7
  ruptura n.fem rupture, fracture W7
  rutabulum n.neut rabble, spatule W7
  rutus vb.ptc dug up W7
  usu n.masc.abl by virtue of usage W7
  usurpo, usurpare vb to possess by usage W7
  usus n.masc use, usage W7
Medieval Latin: rotabulum n.neut rabble, spatule W7
New Latin: ruga n.fem wrinkle W7
Portuguese: rua n street TLL
Old North French: warderobe n.fem wardrobe W7
Middle French: banqueroute n.fem bankruptcy W7
  corrupt adj corrupt W7
  ruine n.fem ruin, destruction W7
  rupture n.fem rupture, fracture W7
  usurper vb to usurp W7
French: banqueroute n bankrupt AHD
  corrompu adj corrupt TLL
  râble n.masc fire shovel W7
  rue n.fem street TLL
Old Italian: bancarotta n.fem bankruptcy W7
  rotta adj.fem broken W7
Italian: bancarotta n bankrupt, lit. broken counter AHD
  rompere vb to break AHD
Russian: rubl n ruble W7
Greek: oryssein vb to dig W7
Sanskrit: ravate vb to break up W7
  luṇṭati vb to rob W7
  loptram n loot, booty AHD
Hindi: lūṭ n loot, spoils W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
abl=ablative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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