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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: reudh-   'red'

Semantic Field: Red


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: rūad adj red LRC
Welsh: rhudd adj red LRC
Old English: rēad adj red W7
  rudduc n ruddock W7
  rudig adj ruddy W7
  rudu adj/n.fem red; redness W7/ASD
  rūst n.masc/neut rust ASD
Middle English: red adj red W7
  rubrike n rubric W7
  ruby n ruby W7
  ruddok n ruddock W7
  rudi adj ruddy W7
  russet n russet W7
  rust n rust W7
  rutilaunt adj rutilant W7
English: bilirubin n reddish yellow pigment in bile/blood/urine/gallstones AHD/W7
  corroborate vb.trans to make more certain, support with evidence/authority AHD/W7
  erythema n abnormal skin redness AHD/W7
  erythr(o)- pfx red AHD
  rambunctious adj boisterous, disorderly AHD
  red adj re: color red (long-wavelength visible light) AHD/W7
  Redhorn prop.n Misty Mountains peak in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  redstart n small European songbird with rust-red breast/tail AHD
  rissole n small pastry-enclosed minced meat/fish croquette AHD
  roble n oak of Mexico/California AHD/W7
  roborant n restoring vigor/strength AHD
  robust adj vigorous, having/exhibiting strength/health AHD/W7
  rouge n cosmetic color for lips/cheeks AHD/W7
  roux n cooked mixture of flour/fat AHD/W7
  rowan n Eurasian tree AHD/W7
  rubella n German measles AHD/W7
  rubeola n measles AHD/W7
  rubescent adj reddening, turning red AHD
  rubicund adj red, ruddy AHD/W7
  rubidium n soft silvery metal AHD/W7
  rubiginous adj re: rusty red color AHD/W7
  rubric n heading in book/manuscript done/underlined in different (e.g. red) color AHD/W7
  ruby n precious stone: red corundum AHD/W7
  ruddock n robin AHD/W7
  ruddy adj having healthy reddish color AHD/W7
  rufescent adj reddish AHD/W7
  rufous adj reddish AHD/W7
  russet n coarse homespun reddish brown cloth AHD/W7
  rust n hydrated ferric oxide: brittle reddish coating on iron AHD/W7
  rutilant adj having reddish glow AHD/W7
  rutile n titanium dioxide AHD/W7
Old Frisian: rād adj red ASD
Old Saxon: rōd adj red ASD
  rost n rust ASD
Old High German: rost n rust ASD
  rōt adj red W7
German: robust adj robust LRC
  Rost n.masc rust LRC
  rot adj red LRC
  Rutil n rutile W7
Old Norse: rauðr adj red LRC
  reynir n rowan W7
  rjóða vb to redden, make red LRC
Icelandic: rauðr adj red ASD
  roði n redness ASD
Gothic: ga-riudei n embarrassment LRC
  rauds adj red ASD
Latin: corroboratus vb.ptc strengthened W7
  corroboro, corroborāre vb to make strong W7
  robiginosus adj rusty W7
  rōbīgo, rōbīginis n.fem rust W7
  rōbur, rōboris n.neut oak, hard wood W7
  robustus adj oaken, strong W7
  rubellus adj reddish W7
  rubēns, rubentis adj red, ruddy, reddish W7
  rubeo, rubēre vb to be red W7
  ruber adj red W7
  rubeus adj red, reddish W7
  rubicundus adj red, rubicund W7
  rubidus adj red, reddish W7
  rubiginosus adj rusty W7
  rubrica n.fem rubric, section W7
  rufescens, rufescentis adj/vb.ptc becoming red/reddish W7
  rufesco, rufescere vb to become red/reddish W7
  rufus adj red, red-haired W7
  ruger adj red W7
  russus adj red W7
  rutilans, rutilantis adj bright (red) W7
  rutilo, rutilare vb to be bright/reddish W7
  rutilus adj red W7
New Latin: erythema n.fem erythema W7
  rubella n.fem German measles W7
  rubeola n.fem measles W7
  rubeolus adj reddish W7
Spanish: roble n.masc oak W7
American Spanish: roble n.masc oak W7
Old French: rous adj russet, red-haired W7
  rousset adj.dim russet, red-haired W7
Middle French: rouge adj red W7
  rubis n.masc ruby W7
  rubrique n.fem rubric W7
French: rouge adj red W7
  roux adj brownish-red, red haired W7
Lithuanian: raũdas adj red LRC
Latvian: rûsa n rust LRC
Old Church Slavonic: rudъ adj red LRC
Russian: rysyj adj red, ruddy LRC
Homeric Greek: ἐρυθρός adj red, ruddy LRC
Greek: erythainein vb to redden W7
  erythēma n red blotch W7
Avestan: raoiδita- adj red, reddened LRC
Sanskrit: rṓhita- adj red, reddened LRC
Tocharian B: rätre adj red LRC
Tocharian A: rätr- adj red LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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