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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: seg̑h-, seg̑hi-, seg̑hu-   'to possess, hold fast, persevere, overcome; victory'

Semantic Fields: to Own, Possess; to Hold; Victory


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: scōl n.fem school W7
  scolere n.masc scholar W7
  sige/sigor n.masc triumph, victory ASD
Middle English: etyk adj hectic W7
  eunuk n eunuch W7
  perseveren vb to persevere W7
  scole n school W7
  scoler n scholar W7
English: asseverate vb.trans to aver/affirm earnestly/positively AHD/W7
  asthenia n debility, lack/loss of strength AHD/W7
  cachexia n general physical wasting/malnutrition AHD/W7
  calisthenics n systematic bodily exercises AHD/W7
  cathexis n investment of sexual energy in person/object/idea AHD/W7
  epoch n date/time selected as point of reference AHD/W7
  eunuch n castrated male in charge of harem AHD/W7
  hectic adj re: fluctuating but persistent fever AHD/W7
  Hector prop.n bravest Trojan (Homer's Iliad) AHD/W7
  hector n bully AHD
  hypersthene n orthorhombic pyroxene AHD/W7
  myasthenia n abnormal muscular fatigue/weakness AHD
  Ophiuchus prop.n equatorial constellation, lit. snake-holder AHD/CDC
  persevere vb.intrans to persist in state/enterprise/undertaking AHD/W7
  scheme n mathematical/astronomical diagram AHD/W7
  scholar n pupil, one who attends school/studies under teacher AHD/W7
  scholastic adj re: Scholasticism (medieval/renaissance Christian philosophical movement) AHD/W7
  scholastic n Scholastic philosopher AHD/W7
  scholium n marginal comment/annotation (on classic text) AHD/W7
  school n place/establishment for instruction AHD/OED
  severe adj strict in judgment/discipline/government AHD/W7
  sthenia n vigor, vitality, bodily strength AHD
  thrombosthenin n contractile clot-forming protein in platelets AHD
Dutch: school n school TLL
Old Saxon: sigi n triumph, victory ASD
Old High German: scuola n school ASD
  scuolari n scholar ASD
  sigi/sigu n triumph, victory RPN
  sigirōn vb to conquer RPN
German: Schule n.fem school TLL
  Sieg n.masc triumph, victory LRC
Old Icelandic: sigr n triumph, victory RPN
Icelandic: sig(r) n triumph, victory ASD
  skóli n school ASD
Danish: skole n school TLL
Swedish: skola n school TLL
Gothic: sigis n triumph, victory RPN
Latin: assevero, asseverāre vb to asseverate W7
  eunuchus n.masc eunuch W7
  Hector n.masc Hector W7
  persevero, perseverāre vb to persevere W7
  schola n.fem school W7
  scholasticus adj re: school/scholars W7
  severus adj severe, assertive W7
Late Latin: cachexia n.fem bad condition, chronic disease W7
  hecticus adj habitual W7
  scholaris adj re: school W7
Medieval Latin: epocha n.fem epoch, era W7
New Latin: asthenia n asthenia AHD
  scholasticus n.masc student in scholasticate W7
  scholium n.neut scholium, note between manuscript lines W7
  sthenia n sthenia AHD
Spanish: escuela n school TLL
Old French: escoler n.masc scholar, student W7
Middle French: étique adj consumptive W7
  persévérer vb to persevere W7
  sévère adj severe W7
French: école n school TLL
  hypersthènie n.fem hypersthene, exaggerated function of certain tissues/organs W7/R1
Homeric Greek: Ἕκτωρ prop.n.masc Hector LRC
  ἐπέχω vb to pause, hold back LRC
  εὐνή n.fem bed, couch, place to lie LRC
  κᾱλός adj fair, beautiful LRC
  σθένος n.neut strength, sthenia LRC
Greek: astheneia n.fem weakness W7
  asthenēs adj weak W7
  εἴχω vb to have, be LRC
  hektikos adj habitual, consumptive W7
  hexis n.fem condition W7
  epochē n.fem cessation, fixed point W7
  eunouchos n.masc eunuch W7
  ἐχυρός adj strong, secure LRC
  ἔχω vb to have, hold LRC
  ἰσχύω vb to be strong LRC
  ἴσχω vb to stay, restrain LRC
  kathexis n.fem holding W7
  katechein vb to hold fast, occupy W7
  kachexia n.fem bad condition, chronic disease W7
  παρέχω vb to provide LRC
  schēma n.neut figure, arrangement W7
  scholazein vb to keep a school W7
  scholastikos adj re: school W7
  σχολή n.fem leisure; school, lecture, discussion LRC
  scholion n.neut comment, scholium W7
Avestan: hazah- n power, victory RPN
Sanskrit: sáhate vb to conquer, prevail, overcome RPN
  sáhas- n strength, power, victory RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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