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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. sē̆k-   'to cut, section, dissect'

Semantic Field: to Cut


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: saga/sagu n.masc/fem saw ASD
  seax n.neut knife, cutting tool ASD
  Seaxe, Seaxan prop.n Saxon(s) ASD
  secg n.masc/neut sedge ASD
  segl/s(w)egel n sail; veil, curtain IEW/ASD
  segl(i)an, seglode, seglod vb.wk.II to sail ASD
  sicol n.masc sickle ASD
  sīþe n.masc scythe W7
Middle English: sail n sail W7
  sawe n saw W7
  sax n zax, knife AHD
  Saxon n Saxon W7
  segge n sedge W7
  sikel n sickle W7
  sithe n scythe W7
English: dissect vb to separate into pieces AHD/W7
  insect n small segmented invertebrate animal AHD/W7
  intersect vb to cross, pierce/divide AHD/W7
  Irensaga prop.n mountain in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  resect vb.trans to perform resection on AHD/W7
  sail n fabric deflecting wind to propel boat/ship W7
  sail vb to travel on water using sail W7
  saw n toothed blade for cutting hard materials AHD/W7
  saw vb to cut with saw W7
  sawn vb.past.ptc sawed LRC
  saxatile adj saxicolous AHD/W7
  saxicolous adj inhabiting/growing among rocks AHD/W7
  Saxon prop.n member of tribe from Saxony LRC
  scythe n long curved blade (on long handle) used for mowing AHD/W7
  secant n straight line intersecting curve at multiple points AHD/W7
  -sect adj.sfx cut, divided AHD/W7
  -sect vb.sfx to cut, divide AHD/W7
  sectile adj able to be severed by knife with smooth cut AHD/W7
  section n action/instance of cutting/separating AHD/W7
  section vb to cut/separate into sections W7
  sector n geometrical figure: two radii + included arc of circle AHD/W7
  sedge n tufted marsh plant AHD/W7
  seecatch n adult male Alaskan fur seal AHD
  segment n piece, portion, fragment AHD/W7
  Sickle prop.n Ursa Major in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  sickle n curved metal blade (on short handle) AHD/W7
  transect vb to cut transversely AHD/W7
  zax n roof slate cutting tool AHD
Dutch: zeil n sail TLL
Old High German: Sahsun prop.n Saxon(s) ASD
  sega/saga n.fem saw W7/ASD
  segal n sail IEW
  segelen vb to sail ASD
  sichila/sihhila n.fem sickle W7/ASD
Middle High German: segge n sedge W7
German: Säge n.fem saw LRC
  sagen vb to saw LRC
  Segel n.neut sail LRC
  segeln vb to sail LRC
  Segge n.fem sedge LRC
  Sichel n.fem sickle ASD
Old Icelandic: segl n sail IEW
Icelandic: Saxar prop.n Saxon(s) ASD
  segl n.neut sail ASD
  sigd n sickle ASD
  sigðr n.masc scythe ASD
  sigla vb to sail ASD
  sög n.fem saw ASD
Danish: sejl n sail TLL
Swedish: segel n sail TLL
Latin: disseco, dissecāre vb to cut apart W7
  dissectus vb.ptc cut apart W7
  inseco, insecare vb to cut into W7
  insectus vb.ptc cut into W7
  interseco, intersecare vb to cut at intervals W7
  intersectus vb.ptc cut at intervals W7
  reseco, resecare vb to cut off W7
  resectus vb.ptc cut off W7
  saxatillis adj saxatile W7
  saxum n.neut rock W7
  secans adj/vb.ptc cutting W7
  seco, secare, secui, sectum vb to cut, wound, injure W7
  sectilis adj that can be separated W7
  sectio, sectionis n.fem section, act/result of cutting W7
  sector n.masc cutter W7
  secula n.fem sickle W7
  segmentum n.neut segment W7
  signum, signi n.neut sign LRC
New Latin: secans, secantis adj/vb.ptc secant W7
Russian: sekach n seecatch AHD
  sech' vb to cut AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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